Skald

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Skald

 

a Norwegian or Icelandic poet of the ninth through 13th centuries. The poetry of the skalds has survived as fragments in the 13th-century Icelandic literary classics the Prose Edda and the sagas. Before being written down, Skaldic poetry existed in oral tradition. The poetry of about 250 skalds is known. The earliest skalds were Norwegians. The most famous skald was the Icelander Egill Skallagrímsson (tenth century).

The skalds composed eulogistic, derogatory, and occasional verse. Their poetry generally set down contemporary facts and hence is regarded as a reliable historical source. For mannered intricacy of form, skaldic poetry is without parallel in world literature. The meter is strict and complex and the language abounds in complicated periphrases (kennings) and poetic synonyms (heitis); phrases are intertwined with one another. Skaldic poetry is difficult to interpret.

WORKS

Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning, 1A-2A (manuscript text); 1B-2B (corrected text with Danish translation). Edited by F. Jónsson. Copenhagen, 1908-15.

REFERENCES

Steblin-Kamenskii, M. I. “Proiskhozhdenie poezii skal’dov.” In Skandinavskii sbornik, fasc. 3. Tallinn, 1958.
De Vries, J. Altnordische Literaturgeschichte, 2nd ed., vols. 1-2. Berlin, 1964-67.

M. I. STEBLIN-KAMENSKII [23–1462–]

References in periodicals archive ?
Hot drinks can scald a child some 15 minutes after they have been made.
04% and so burns preventive measures, especially towards scald prevention at homes, should be paramount, since the home serves as the highest place of childhood scalds occurrence [15]
Nearly three quarters of the children were under the age of five, with most burn or scald injuries occurring in one-year-olds and all injuries were sustained at home.
Depending on the severity of the burn or scald, see your GP or go to a minor injuries unit or accident and emergency department.
For this analysis, a visit for nonfatal scald burn was defined as a visit by a patient aged [greater than or equal to]65 years to a hospital ED for scald burns at any time during the study period, 2001-2006.
However, evidence indicates that the vegetation was present prior to the development of salinity, as described in more detail below, with subsequent outbreaks of salinity resulting in the death of vegetation and the establishment of the scalds.
Coroner Michael Sheffield, recording an open verdict, said: "I accept that the scalds had healed, but the scalding may just have aggravated his already existing natural problems.
Nicholas Parkhouse, a burns specialist from the Queen Victoria Hospital in East Grinstead, West Sussex, said: 'At the Queen Victoria Hospital we advise that when a burn or scald occurs, the important thing is to act immediately to get cold water on to the affected area for at least ten minutes.
Direct Supply's new ScaldGuard[TM] antiscald system protects residents from hot-water scalds, even in the event of a mixing valve failure.
And, mortality rates from scalds are highest for children under age 4.
AS kitchen equipment, cooking and hot food and drink are responsible for more than half of the burn and scald cases, Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) is advising parents and caregivers to protect their young children from injury or permanent disability caused by burns and scalds by making some simple changes at home.
AGONY Ken shows horrific scalds to his neck and back