1a, the initial error is only at the smallest scale (38 m) and is saturated, then that error modifies somewhat larger scales of motion, which in turn modify even larger scales.
1969: The predictability of a flow which possesses many scales of motion.
Snyder, 2008: A generalization of Lorenz's model for the predictability of flows with many scales of motion.
These turbulent fluxes of the ocean occur at the smallest scales of motion, on the order of centimeters, during different conditions, including those very calm days when the ocean is like a mirror.
Laurent deployed autonomous gliders and profilers from a research vessel to measure the smallest scales of motion in the ocean.
Progress in understanding and controlling wall turbulence has been somewhat incremental because of the massive range of scales of motion
involved-from the width of a human hair to the height of a multi-floor building in relative terms.
Intensities of turbulence are typically quantified in terms of the energy dissipation rate ([epsilon]), an index of how fast the kinetic energy of a flow is transferred from larger scales of motion
to smaller ones, and in the limit, converted to heat.
In this issue we see several scientific ideas ready to plunge ahead with better observing and modeling, whether to explain sea ice loss in the Arctic, to resolve the water vapor and convection relationships in the tropics, to get a better picture of the boundary layer, or to pull together disparate scales of motion
governing mesoscale prediction.