scaling

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scaling

[′skāl·iŋ]
(biology)
The removing of scales from fishes.
(electronics)
Counting pulses with a scaler when the pulses occur too fast for direct counting by conventional means.
(engineering)
Removing scale (rust or salt) from a metal or other surface.
(graphic arts)
Using a scale to measure dimensions in a scale drawing.
(mechanics)
Expressing the terms in an equation of motion in powers of nondimensional quantities (such as a Reynolds number), so that terms of significant magnitude under conditions specified in the problem can be identified, and terms of insignificant magnitude can be dropped.
(medicine)
(metallurgy)
Forming of a thick layer of metallic oxide on metals at high temperatures.
Depositing of solid inorganic solutes from water on a metal surface, such as a cooling tube or boiler.
(mining engineering)
Removing loose rocks and coal from the roof, walls, or face after blasting.
(nuclear physics)
A property of nuclear collisions whereby the likelihood of a nuclear reaction depends more on the ratio between energy transferred and momentum transferred than on the energy transferred between the colliding particles.

scaling

a method ofmeasurement in the social sciences, which is applied particularly to the measurement of personality traits and of ATTITUDES. Central is the concept of a continuum. This means that personality types, for example, can be arranged or ordered in terms of dichotomous schemas (such as EXTRAVERSION AND INTROVERSION), and attitudes vary on a scale going from one extreme, through neutral, to the other extreme. When this is not possible and two or more dimensions are required for accurate description, multidimensional scaling is used (see Kruksall and Wish, Multidimensional Scaling, 1978.)

There are a number of ways of constructing such scales, but all rely on the assumption that personality traits or attitudes can be assessed from the responses given to statements or questions (see LIKERT SCALE). It is important that an equal number of positively and negatively loaded statements are used, and that only one dimension is tapped. Various statistical techniques are used to check the internal consistency of scales as they are developed.

QUESTIONNAIRES are the usual basis of scaling, but it can also be done from CONTENT ANALYSIS. See also ATTITUDE SCALE/MEASUREMENT, GUTTMAN SCALE, POLITICAL ATTITUDES.

scaling

Local flaking or peeling away of the surface portion of concrete or mortar.

scaling

(1) See scale.

(2) Sometimes refers to obtaining incremental improvements in new products via traditional methods: "evolutionary" rather than "revolutionary."
References in periodicals archive ?
Then, we define the subdomain (deluxe) scaling matrices by
Each pair of the scaling matrices [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] satisfies property (4.2).
Up to equation (4.5), no generalized eigenvalue problem is used but only deluxe scaling. Since the term in (4.5) is bounded by
Since all tools were provided for John domains with the exception of the extension theorem, which requires uniform domains, by using deluxe scaling, the analysis carries over to the broader class of John domains.
Note that (4.4) and (4.6) are the same in the case of deluxe scaling. Analogously to Lemma 4.8, we obtain the following bound.
where [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], are arbitrary scaling matrices that provide a partition of unity, i.e., satisfy (4.2).
The RMA scaling exponent, however, differed among individual groupings of animals and plants.
Analysis indicated that the RMA scaling exponents for aquatic and terrestrial D with respect to L did not statistically significantly differ.
These findings indicate geometric similitude among plants and animals that resonates with the proposal of Wainwright (1988) as well as a recent study that provides indirect evidence for geometric similitude based on the scaling of metabolic rates with mammal body size (Heusner 1991).
From the data presented here, it also is clear that the affirmation that M [varies as] [L.sup.3] and D [varies as] [L.sup.1.0] empirically recedes with increasing taxonomic resolution because closely related species share similar scaling exponents.
Curiously, however, the compatibility of empirically determined scaling exponents with those predicted by the null hypothesis (i.e., geometric similitude) does not assure that the assumptions upon which the null hypothesis rests hold true (see Prothero 1986).
In terms of size-dependent variations in shape and geometry, the scaling exponent for the relation between plant body diameter with respect to body length ranges over one order of magnitude among individual grades and clades examined (i.e., 0.53 [is less than or equal to] [[Alpha].sub.RMA] [is less than or equal to] 1.47).