Braun suspects that the animals spend the energy necessary to dive to the deep scattering layer
because they have a guaranteed source of food there.
Previous studies suggested that application of scattering layer
- which usually has a one-dimensional structure such as nanobars and nanotubes - results in scattering and increasing the length of the path through which light comes in.
Instead of attempting to increase efficiency by altering the thickness of the solar cell's polymer layer - a tactic that has preciously garnered mixed results - the researchers sought to design the geometric pattern of the scattering layer
to maximize the amount of time light remained trapped within the cell.
The vast life of the deep scattering layer
supports the surface life above it, including the $172 billion global seafood and aquaculture industries.
ABSTRACT The sonic scattering layer
(SSL) or deep scattering layer
(DSL) of the eastern Arabian Sea of India is found in depths between surfaces to 750 m with varying thicknesses and in multiple layers.
Timings of crater disappearances and reappearances may give some indication of scattering, but they are primarily governed by refraction well above the scattering layer
Recently, a method is developed to enhance the efficiency and stabilize the emission spectrum in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using a light scattering layer
fabricated with silver nanowires .
Kang, "One-pot synthesis of peacock-shaped Ti[O.sub.2] light scattering layer
with Ti[O.sub.2] nanorods film for dye-sensitized solar cells," Applied Surface Science, vol.
A scattering layer
around 4 [micro]m was deposited by using this scattering Ti[O.sub.2] paste and a final thickness of 16 [micro]m was attained.
For instance, a typical Ti[O.sub.2] photoelectrode of a DSSC includes a three-layer structure: a compact layer, a nanocrystalline layer, and a scattering layer
. In some cases, the architecture for the Ti[O.sub.2] nanoparticle electrode is composed of a layer of small nanoparticles (tens of nm) for larger surface areas and dye uptakes and a layer containing larger nanoparticles (hundreds of nm) as the back optical scattering/reflection layer for enhancing usage of the incident light [24-26].
The efficiencies of DSSCs with the scattering layer
prepared by 50, 100, and 200 nm particles are 3.62, 5.68, and 6.54%, respectively.
These smaller particle sizes in the bottom are beneficial to recapture the scattering light from the top scattering layer
. The larger particle sizes of Ti[O.sub.2] layers in the top can enhance the back-scattering light effectively and result in higher photocurrent, as shown in Figure 5(b).