In particular, the scattering loss
due to surface roughness of copper foil is examined in detail and the efficacy of copper foil with low surface roughness demonstrated.
For the particle concentration of greater than 0.5 wt%, the efficiency decreases with the increasing particle concentration, because the increasing particle concentration results in greater self-absorption and scattering loss
. So, the LSC with a particle concentration of 0.5 wt% exhibits the best performance.
This is caused by a grain boundary which induces a refractive index of non-homogeneity in the material and thus causes scattering loss
. Due to this reason, this paper specifically is looking into methods and techniques in minimizing optical loss in polysilicon waveguide.
In such cases, even stronger scattering could be induced by the added large particles such that the originally weak absorption in some wavelength ranges (e.g., longer wavelengths) could be enhanced, yet with the risk of degrading originally efficient absorption in other wavelength ranges (e.g., shorter wavelengths) due to significant back scattering loss
of the incident light .
The scattering loss
results from surface roughness and bulk defects such as particles and microcracks.
Both the absorption loss and process-induced scattering loss
are very low when compared with the total loss.
The total scattering becomes a complicated function of the wavelength, but as is well known (38), it is normally inversely proportional to the fourth power (~[[lambda].sub.-4]), which partially accounts for the reason the apparent absorbance is higher at lower wavelength, a fact that the absorbance change is mainly due to the scattering loss
of light intensity.
For the high dimensional photonic crystals, the major challenge is the fabrication of these structure along with the sufficient precision to prevent scattering losses
the blur properties of crystal.
IBS coatings also exhibit low scattering losses
and high reflectivity--greater than 99.99 per cent depending on optimised wavelength.
Generally, the scattering losses
are not often considered in data analysis.
The sensitivity enhancement was limited by the scattering losses
per pass that were reported as being approx.
Apart from setting the boundary condition to avoid scattering losses
, a perfectly matched layer of 10 [micro]m is also additionally used.