Warming  developed a qualitative classification of species according to their ability to use a particular share of gradient (for example, based on moisture: xerophytes, mesophytes, hygrophytes, hydrophites; on light: sciophytes
and heliophytes) .
vittata and Vriesea bituminosa develop as heliophiles in Afloramentos Rochosos or sciophytes
in Mata de Galeria (Figure 3).
The endemics have characteristics more typical of sciophytes
[i.e., thin leaves, large leaf area, weak and etiolated stems (Daubenmire, 1974; Larcher, 1995)] than do their parental taxa, The relative age of the endemic flowering plants ranges from the Late Tertiary to the Recent.