Povidone-iodine (10%) was a safe, cost-effective, easily available, and tolerated sclerosing agent
for pleurodesis in spontaneous pneumothorax by tube thoracostomy method showing success rate of 90% up to 180 days of postpleurodesis day with minimal complication or adverse effect.
Conservative method was used to manage subluxation (chronic recurrent dislocation) by the use of sclerosing agents
, sodium tetradecyl sulfate, by injecting them into the joint space 19,21.
In our study, we preferred intralesional sclerotherapy against macrocyctic LM and used bleomycin as a sclerosing agent
. There is an increasing choice of sclerotherapy especially as a treatment for pediatric lymphatic malformations (10).
Sclerotherapy is the targeted elimination of small vessels, varicose veins and vascular anomalies by injection of a sclerosant.5 The sclerosing agents
include sodium tetradecyl sulfate and monoethanolamine oleate.
Vargas, "Comparison of the effectiveness of tetracycline and minocycline as pleural sclerosing agents
in rabbits," Chest, vol.
Several treatment approaches with conflicting outcomes have been reported, varying according to the number of sessions, single or multiple, and drainage or retention of the sclerosing agent
. (13) (18-20) We used single-session 95% ethanol sclerotherapy without drainage of the sclerosing agent
in 42 patients with 45 renal cortical cysts.
Most commonly used sclerosing agents
are OK432 and bleomycin.
Our data revealed that using 3 sclerosing agent
gave a total success rate of 75%, bovoiodine 87.5%, vibramycin and talc slurry 66.7% for each, which is comparable to the analysis of the results of patients subjected to pleurodesis with talc, tetracycline derivatives or bleomycin, with the conclusion that all agents were approximately 80% effective .
Rare complications include formation of blood clots in the treated veins, inflammation, and allergic reactions to the sclerosing agent
. Sclerotherapy can cause bruising that lasts as long as a month.
[1.] Lucatorto FM, Sapp JP: Treatment of oral Kaposi's sarcoma with a sclerosing agent
in AIDS patients.
Treatment of pyogenic granuloma with a sclerosing agent
. Dermatol Surg.
Moreover, the injection of air followed by the sclerosing agent
has the ability to better identify anastomotic circles between the spermatic and the inferior mesenteric veins compared to radiocontrast, due to the different densities of these 2 substances.