Sclerotium

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sclerotium

[sklə′rō·shəm]
(microbiology)
The hardened, resting or encysted condition of the plasmodium of Myxomycetes.
(mycology)
A hardened, resting mass of hyphae, usually black on the outside, from which fructifications may develop.

Sclerotium

 

in fungi, a dormant stage that occurs under unfavorable conditions. The sclerotium is a round or elongate body formed by the close intertwining of the hyphae of some ascomycetous, basidial, and imperfect fungi—for example, ergot, sclerotinia, Brazilian polyporous fungus, and monilia. The sclerotium usually ranges in size from a fraction of a millimeter to 2 cm. Some larger forms occur; for example, in the Brazilian polyporous fungus the sclerotium reaches 30 cm in diameter and 20 kg in weight. The cells of the outer part of the sclerotium are dark and thick-walled, whereas those of the interior are colorless and thin-walled.

The sclerotium contains little water (5–10 percent) but is rich in nutritive substances. Under favorable conditions the sclerotium buds and forms fruiting bodies in ascomycetous and basidial fungi or mycelia with conidia in imperfect fungi. The sclerotium may remain viable for several years. The ergot sclerotium contains several alkaloids, including ergotoxine, ergometrine, and ergotamine, which are used medicinally as parturifacients and antihemorrhagics (to treat uterine hermorrhages).

References in periodicals archive ?
phaseolina was taken from the periphery of the petri dishes, spread onto other petri dishes containing glucose agar medium (glucose, 20 g; agar, 20 g; and water, 1 L) and incubated in the dark at 27 2C for 7 days for sclerotial formation.
In addition, the result also give us the idea on the amount of aflatoxin produced by Aspegillus flavus in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) since aflatoxin production in the fungi are interrelated with the sclerotial formation [6].
Singh SK, Dhar BL, Verma RN (1999) Mass production of carpogenic sclerotial spawn in Morchella esculenta- An attempt at its domestication.
Mean isolation rating (MIR) for the presence of Macrophomina phaseolina in soybean root tissue taken 90 days post-emergence from soil containing cornmeal/sand inoculum or from seedlings inoculated with a hanging drop of sclerotial suspension.
The complete inhibition of the sclerotial formation by the pathogen in the test plates was found with T.
PHOTO : Peanut stems showing typical symptoms of Sclerotinia infection including fluffy white mycelia, black sclerotial bodies, and tan lesions.
rolfsii that was exposed to the sun for both mulching and no mulching treatments did not germinate, whereas 95.2-96% of sclerotial germination under room temperature were detected.
Wide host ranges and sclerotial longevity limit the effectiveness of crop rotation as a means of control for Sclerotinia blight (Goldman et al., 1995).