In this group, where large series of specimens are available for comparative study, there appears to be developmental and interspecific variation in the extent and intensity of the tergite's lateral sclerotization
, so that, in some specimens, especially those that are teneral, the spiracle appears to open on an unsclerotized portion of the pleuron membrane.
of the body and carapace begins at the deutonymphal stage and increases gradually to adults.
First instar larva (L1): Head and body whitish, unpigmented, head nearly round; whitish brain mass visible through cuticle; mandibles with hardly any trace of sclerotization
. No external sexual characteristics present.
lecorrei in a lesser sclerotization
of genitalia and in the absence of aedeagus appendix.
Alternatively, Howardula may slow the rate of cuticle sclerotization
, as parasitized Drosophila often have a soft, light-colored cuticle (J.
There is also a dorsal sclerotization
of the membrane immediately posterior to the epiphallus; Mason (1966) and subsequent authors (e.g Naskrecki 1995) refer to this too as a sclerotization
of the ectophallic membrane, but to the present author it seems more likely that this is part of the epiphallic membrane, homologous with the post-epiphallic sclerites of the Ommatolampinae (Carbonell et al.
Hemocyanins have multiple physiological functions in invertebrates, including sclerotization
and maintenance of cuticle integrity (Adachi et al., 2005; Terwilliger, 2007), repair of wounds, osmoregulation (Paul and Pirow, 1998), and involvement in the immune response (Coates et al., 2011).
arboretus), by the form of the sclerotization
of the surroundings of the copulatory openings, and by the shape of the posterior epigynal edge.
The main effect of phenoloxidase on cuticle function may indeed be proactive, occurring during the early phase of cuticle sclerotization
, when the phosphatic trabeculae are developing in the region of the inner exocuticle that is being cross-linked by quinones.
Outer margins of parameres have greater sclerotization
than the inner one, and overlap each other terminally.
A low, semi-ring-shaped mesal and dorsal (posterior) wall of the antennal sclerite entire, whereas the higher ventral (anterior) and lateral wall fragmented into seven sclerites, four of them crescent-shaped and distinctly delimited, the fifth forming basis of antennifer, an indistinctly delimited sixth represented by a sclerotization
within the basi-antennal membrane (a diffused prescapite?).