sclerosis

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sclerosis

1. Pathol a hardening or thickening of organs, tissues, or vessels from chronic inflammation, abnormal growth of fibrous tissue, or degeneration of the myelin sheath of nerve fibres, or (esp on the inner walls of arteries) deposition of fatty plaques
2. the hardening of a plant cell wall or tissue by the deposition of lignin
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sclerosis

 

the hardening of an organ or tissue in humans and animals caused by connective-tissue overgrowth. Functionally valuable elements of the parenchyma of a sclerosed organ are destroyed and replaced by mature and sometimes coarse-fibered connective tissue, which often contains deposits of amyloid, hyalin, and lime. New connective tissue is usually formed by the reproduction of fibroblasts (connective-tissue cells) and by the intensified formation of collagen molecules by the fibroblasts.

In cases of sclerosis, parenchymal elements may be destroyed by inflammatory processes that are usually chronic in nature, including tuberculosis, rheumatic fever, and syphilis, and by circulatory disturbances, including passive congestion. Parenchymal elements may also be destroyed by involutional changes, for example, the postpartum sclerosis of the corpus lutea, and by changes associated with age and by metabolic disturbances. Sclerosis may be focal or diffuse. The proliferated connective tissue may become corrugated, resulting in the deformation of the organ, or cirrhosis. During cirrhosis, the hardening and reduction of an organ are accompanied by surface changes, including alternating outpouchings and invaginations, such as in a granular kidney or nodular liver.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

sclerosis

[sklə′rō·səs]
(pathology)
Hardening of a tissue, especially by proliferation of fibrous connective tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Although the bodies of larvae regularly grow and continually increase in length, the sizes of certain sclerotized body parts, such as the head capsule, mouthparts, antennae, and mandible, display discontinuous growth rates because the growth of these sclerotized parts occurs only when an insect molts and a new, soft cuticle is produced and expanded (Chapman 1998).
The remarkable feature in this new species are the presence of two very large papillae without setae in dorsal region of collar segment, and dorsal sclerotized plate occupying pro and mesothorax, absent in other neotropical species of Clinodiplosis.
transvaalicus, but differs in the RTA having a darkly sclerotized elongated hooked tip (Fig.
Caloctenus contains four valid species and can be distinguished by leg spination, carapace shape, strongly sclerotized male palpal tibia at apex, and median apophysis with an apical beak.
The male's basal lateral digits are sclerotized, but the endophallic lateral digits are membranous lobes above a thinly sclerotized basal supporting block.
Synapomorphies of Neodiscopoma include (all of these are missing in other taxa of the genus Uropoda s.l.): central area of dorsal shield elevated from the other parts, this area having strongly sclerotized margins; marginal shield reduced on caudal part; and setae in caudal area situated on small platelets.
Near these cavities several well sclerotized furrows can be seen on posterior part of dorsal shield.
57, 58) by the shape of the terminal and median apophysis, but can be distinguished by the longer and heavily sclerotized acute median and terminal apophysis (Figs.
13,14); pt = pitfall trap; PT = paratype; PTA = prolateral tibial apophysis; rl = retrolateral; RPA = retrolateral patellar apophysis of male palp; RTA = retrolateral tibial apophysis of male palp; sl = sifting litter; sn = sweep net; st = suction trap; ST1 = spermatheca 1 (connected to FD); ST2 = spermatheca 2, an additional sclerotized hollow receptacle, presumably used for sperm storage (von Engelhardt 1910:38); ta = tarsus; ti = tibia, ve = ventral; w = width.
The diagnostic characters of the species are the enlarged dorsal-longitudinal ridges on the basal half of the ovipositor, and the setose sclerotized posterior margin of the male seventh tergite.