scopolamine


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scopolamine

(skōpŏl`əmēn, –mĭn) or

hyoscine

(hī`əsēn', –sĭn), alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), chiefly from henbanehenbane
or black henbane,
herb (Hyoscyamus niger) native to the Mediterranean region and naturalized in parts of North America. It belongs to the family Solanaceae (nightshade family) and contains a narcotic poison (similar to that of the related belladonna)
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, Hyoscyamus niger. Structurally similar to the nerve substance acetylcholineacetylcholine
, a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. The transmission of an impulse to the end of the nerve causes it to release neurotransmitter molecules onto the surface of
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, scopolamine acts by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses by acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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 and produces symptoms typical of parasympathetic system depression: dilated pupils, rapid heartbeat, and dry skin, mouth, and respiratory passages. Because scopolamine depresses the central nervous system, it is used as a sedativesedative,
any of a variety of drugs that relieve anxiety. Most sedatives act as mild depressants of the nervous system, lessening general nervous activity or reducing the irritability or activity of a specific organ.
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 prior to anesthesia and as an antispasmodic in certain disorders characterized by restlessness and agitation, e.g., delirium tremens, psychosis, mania, and Parkinsonism. When combined with morphinemorphine,
principal derivative of opium, which is the juice in the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. It was first isolated from opium in 1803 by the German pharmacist F. W. A. Sertürner, who named it after Morpheus, the god of dreams.
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, the effect produced is a tranquilized state known as twilight sleep; this combination of drugs was formerly used in obstetrics but is now considered too dangerous. Overdosage of scopolamine causes delirium, delusions, paralysis, and stupor. The alkaloid is found in a variety of nonprescription sedatives.

Scopolamine

 

an alkaloid of the tropane group commonly occurring in such solanaceous plants as belladonna, henbane, and datura (mainly in the leaves). The alkaloid is also present in the rhizome of Scopolia. Scopolamine is similar to atropine in chemical properties and physiological activity. Its hydrobro-mide is used in anesthesiology; it is also an antiparkinson and cholinolytic agent. A derivative of scopolamine and camphor is included in the composition of aeron, an antiemetic.

scopolamine

[skə′päl·ə‚mēn]
(pharmacology)
C17H21O4N An alkaloid derivative of several plants in the family Solanaceae, used as an anticholinergic drug; its hydrobromide salt is used as a sedative.
References in periodicals archive ?
Histamine H3 antagonist thioperamide dosedependently enhances memory consolidation and reverses amnesia induced by dizocilpine or scopolamine in a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task in mice.
The findings of hole board model indicated that only aqueous Anise extract improved the memory of mice by preventing them from the damages of scopolamine while n-hexane extract of Anise failed to do so.
Scopolamine treatment given to the control animals showed no effect on seizure susceptibility, regardless of the food deprivation duration (data not shown).
Piracetam (sun pharmaceuticals), scopolamine, normal saline, and ethanol were used.
It's similar to or the same as (accounts vary) the prescription motion sickness medication scopolamine.
On the last day of treatment, scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was administered as a single dose 30 min after drug administration through intraperitoneal (ip) injection route to all the groups except group I (SHAM 1).
In addition, the rat's ERP P300-like response was sensitive to pharmacological modulation of the cholinergic tone [46], which is consistent with changes observed in healthy human studies because of diminished cholinergic neurotransmission by scopolamine or a selective muscarinic receptor antagonist [47, 48].
The company said its prescription scopolamine 1.5 mg transdermal system patch is the AB rated generic equivalent to Transderm Scop (scopolamine 1.5 mg).
(7) A number of NMDA antagonists have been reported to rapidly reverse--within a few hours--severe and chronic depression when administered intravenously (ketamine, rapastinel, scopolamine), intranasally (S-ketamine), or via inhalation (nitrous oxide).
Supplemental oxygen, plus scopolamine patches applied at least an hour prior to flight, can help too.
(2009) investigated the effects of dimethylaminoethanol pyroglutamate (DMAE p-Glu) against memory deficits induced by scopolamine. (84) The study aimed at establishing the potential therapeutic utility for DMAE p-Glu in cognitive impairments related to central cholinergic deficit.