scopolamine

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scopolamine

(skōpŏl`əmēn, –mĭn) or

hyoscine

(hī`əsēn', –sĭn), alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the nightshade family (Solanaceae), chiefly from henbanehenbane
or black henbane,
herb (Hyoscyamus niger) native to the Mediterranean region and naturalized in parts of North America. It belongs to the family Solanaceae (nightshade family) and contains a narcotic poison (similar to that of the related belladonna)
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, Hyoscyamus niger. Structurally similar to the nerve substance acetylcholineacetylcholine
, a small organic molecule liberated at nerve endings as a neurotransmitter. It is particularly important in the stimulation of muscle tissue. The transmission of an impulse to the end of the nerve causes it to release neurotransmitter molecules onto the surface of
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, scopolamine acts by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses by acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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 and produces symptoms typical of parasympathetic system depression: dilated pupils, rapid heartbeat, and dry skin, mouth, and respiratory passages. Because scopolamine depresses the central nervous system, it is used as a sedativesedative,
any of a variety of drugs that relieve anxiety. Most sedatives act as mild depressants of the nervous system, lessening general nervous activity or reducing the irritability or activity of a specific organ.
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 prior to anesthesia and as an antispasmodic in certain disorders characterized by restlessness and agitation, e.g., delirium tremens, psychosis, mania, and Parkinsonism. When combined with morphinemorphine,
principal derivative of opium, which is the juice in the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. It was first isolated from opium in 1803 by the German pharmacist F. W. A. Sertürner, who named it after Morpheus, the god of dreams.
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, the effect produced is a tranquilized state known as twilight sleep; this combination of drugs was formerly used in obstetrics but is now considered too dangerous. Overdosage of scopolamine causes delirium, delusions, paralysis, and stupor. The alkaloid is found in a variety of nonprescription sedatives.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Scopolamine

 

an alkaloid of the tropane group commonly occurring in such solanaceous plants as belladonna, henbane, and datura (mainly in the leaves). The alkaloid is also present in the rhizome of Scopolia. Scopolamine is similar to atropine in chemical properties and physiological activity. Its hydrobro-mide is used in anesthesiology; it is also an antiparkinson and cholinolytic agent. A derivative of scopolamine and camphor is included in the composition of aeron, an antiemetic.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

scopolamine

[skə′päl·ə‚mēn]
(pharmacology)
C17H21O4N An alkaloid derivative of several plants in the family Solanaceae, used as an anticholinergic drug; its hydrobromide salt is used as a sedative.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Ten minutes before the behavioral tests, mice in group 1 were administered normal saline intraperitoneally, and mice in other groups were administered 5 mg x [kg.sup.-1] scopolamine hydrobromide intraperitoneally to induce memory impairment.
Scopolamine hydrobromide, an anticholinergic agent, is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with motion sickness and recovery from anesthesia and surgery.
Patients were then randomized to receive intravenous infusion of either saline solution or scopolamine hydrobromide at 4.0 mcg/kg, over three treatment sessions that made up block 1 in the study design.
Scopolamine hydrobromide generally comes in the form of a small white tablet.
Scopolamine hydrobromide (Sigma, Germany) was dissolved in an isotonic solution (0.9% NaCl) and 0.7mg/kg scopolamine was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.), daily, for 7 continuous days, 30 min after silexan and lavender exposition procedure.
Scopolamine hydrobromide (Sigma-Aldrich, USA), diazepam (Ranbaxy, India), 5,5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), acetylcholine iodide, eserine salicylate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate (Hi Media, India), piracetam (UCB India Ltd., India), metrifonate (Sigma-Aldrich, USA), simvastatin (Krebs Biochemicals and Industries Limited, India) and cholesterol diagnostics kit (Erba Diagnostics, Germany).
Moreover, the enhancement of oxotremorine-induced tremors by Ninjin-yoei-to (1000 mg/kg) and Polygalae radix (100 mg/kg) was completely antagonized by pretreatment of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.5 mg/kg).