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score,in musical notationmusical notation,
symbols used to make a written record of musical sounds.
Two different systems of letters were used to write down the instrumental and the vocal music of ancient Greece. In his five textbooks on music theory Boethius (c.A.D. 470–A.D.
..... Click the link for more information. , manuscript or printed music in which the various parts are placed one above the other so that notes that are to be played simultaneously are in vertical alignment. Early polyphony was notated in score until the early 13th cent., when choir books, in which the parts were written out separately one after another, came into use. Part books, with a separate book for each part, were employed in the 16th and 17th cent. With the rise of opera music around the beginning of the 17th cent., the modern score came into being, with bar lines scored from top to bottom through all the staffs. A full score is one such as an orchestral conductor uses, in which each part is on a separate staff, while in a condensed score two or more parts are written on a single staff. Full scores are also printed in miniature pocket editions. In a vocal score or piano-vocal score of an opera or a choral work, the vocal parts are written out in full but the accompaniment is reduced to two staffs.
(Italian, partitura,) the notation of all the parts of a vocal, instrumental, or vocal-instrumental composition, in which the parts for the various instruments are arranged, one on top of the other, so that the beginning of each measure and every beat in a measure are aligned. Thus, a score makes it possible to read at a glance the sounds to be produced simultaneously in all parts.
The musical score originated in Italy in the mid-16th century and eventually became the main form for notating multipart compositions. Separate copies of the various parts are published for the performers, but the conductor (or choirmaster) always reads from the score in rehearsal and in performance.
Gradually, an order was established for the arrangement of parts in a score. In a vocal (choral) score the voices are arranged from top to bottom, according to descending tessitura (soprano, alto, tenor, bass). In a score for a symphony orchestra the instrumental parts are arranged in groups, from the top of the page to the bottom: woodwinds, brass, percussion, harp (if called for), and strings. Within each group, the parts are arranged in order of descending pitch. Solo vocal and instrumental parts, as well as choral parts, are written between the harp and string parts.
I. A. BARSOVA
compressor blade damage
i. Bend. The blade gives the appearance of ragged edges. Smooth repair of the edges or surface in question can be carried out, but the extent of the damage that can be repaired is limited.
ii. Bow. The main source of this type of damage is a foreign object. The blade is bent at the tips and the edges.
iii. Burning. The damage is caused by overheating. The surface of the blade is discolored. If the overheating is severe, there may be some flow of material as well.
iv. Burr. A ragged or turn-out edge is indicative of this type of damage. This takes place during the grinding or cutting operation of the blade at the manufacturing stage.
v. Corrosion. Oxidants and corrosive agents, especially moisture present in the atmosphere, are the main reasons for the corrosion or pitting of the blades. Normally, regular washing is sufficient to prevent it. The blade gives a pitted appearance, and there is some breakdown of the surface of the blade. Also called pitting.
vi. Cracks. Excessive stress from shocks, overloading, or faulty processing of blades during manufacturing can cause cracks and result in their fracture.
vii. Dent. These can be caused by FOD (foreign-object damage) or strikes by dull objects like those in bird strikes. Minor dents can be repaired.
viii. Gall. This type of damage is from the severe rubbing of blades, in which a transfer of metal from one surface to another takes place.
ix. Gouging. The blade gives the appearance of displacing material from its surface, and a tearing effect is prominently visible. This type of damage is from the presence of a comparatively large cutting material or foreign body between moving parts.
x. Growth. The damage manifests itself in the form of elongation of the blades. Growth type of damage takes place because of continued and/or excessive heat and centrifugal force.
xi. Score. Deep scratches are indicative of scoring, which is caused by the presence of chips between surfaces.
xii. Scratch. Narrow and shallow scratches are caused by sand or fine foreign particles as well as by mishandling the blades.
xiii. Pitting. Pitting takes place because of atmospheric corrosion, especially seawater. The surface of the blade shows signs of pitting.