scrapie


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

scrapie:

see prionprion
, abnormal form of a protein found in mammals, believed to cause a group of diseases known as prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Well-known prion diseases are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Scrapie

 

a slowly developing infectious disease of sheep that is associated with degenerative changes in the central nervous system and characterized by excitability, severe itching, paralysis, and emaciation. First reported in Great Britain in 1732, scrapie is recorded today in Europe, southern Africa, India, Australia, Canada, the USA, and many other areas.

The nature of the causative agent of scrapie has not been determined. A viral hypothesis has been formulated but not substantiated. Some believe the causative agent to be a protein, whereas others believe it to be a special type of polysaccharide. There also is a membrane hypothesis, which states that the biological activity of the causative agent of scrapie is the function of a modified cell membrane.

The causative agent of scrapie is extraordinarily resistant; it can withstand boiling for three hours, is resistant to chemical agents, and preserves well in desiccated pathological material and at low temperatures. Sheep 18 months of age and older are affected. The causative agent is transmitted when sick and healthy animals are housed together and when animals graze on infected pastures. Sheep of various breeds have different susceptibilities to scrapie. Although the disease has been recorded year-round, it occurs more frequently in winter and spring. Scrapie might be related to such human diseases as multiple sclerosis and parkinsonism. The incubation period lasts one to four years. At first, infected animals are characterized by unusual behavior, increased excitability, tremors, and an abnormal gait. Itching is also a characteristic early symptom. Subsequent symptoms include emaciation, incoordination, and paralysis. The animals die several weeks after the appearance of the first symptoms.

Scrapie is diagnosed according to clinical symptoms and histological examination. A treatment has not been developed. Control and preventive measures include the refusal of entry of sheep from an infected country and the slaughter of infected flocks. Some sheep breeders discontinue hereditary lines of sheep among which scrapie has been discovered.

REFERENCES

Kukhto, A. F. “Pochesukha ovets: skreipi.” In Bolezni ovets. Moscow, 1963.
Andrewes, C. Virusy pozvonochnykh. Moscow, 1967. (Translated from English.)
Andrewes, C. Estestvennaia istoriia virusov. Moscow, 1969. (Translated from English.)

I. A. BAKULOV

scrapie

[′skrā·pē]
(veterinary medicine)
A transmissible, usually fatal, virus disease of sheep, characterized by degeneration of the central nervous system.
References in periodicals archive ?
Scrapie is a serious disease that must be eradicated, State Veterinarian Dr.
La sintomatologia del scrapie incluye signos de rapida identificacion; sin embargo, no se ha reportado en forma fehaciente la presencia de esta enfermedad en ovinos en el Peru, aunque tampoco se puede descartar su presencia (R.
Within scrapie and CWD, natural strain variation also occurs.
The project integrated computer-based image analysis techniques with molecular diagnostics to demonstrate that in sheep with scrapie specific MRI changes can be indicative of neurodegeneration before symptoms appear.
The good news is that a new, live-animal test to detect scrapie is being applied to goats.
The Scrapie plan ram genotyping scheme and flock register will close in March 2009 with no new applications now being accepted.
The natural incidence of scrapie varies among animals indicating that the genotype of the host plays a role in modulating susceptibility to the disease (8).
Their theory was based on the fact that the mysterious infectious agent causing diseases such as scrapie and CJD resisted ultraviolet radiation (which breaks down nucleic acids), yet was inactivated by agents that disrupt proteins.
In the cattle brain disease BSE, its human equivalent vCJD, and the sheep disease scrapie, the infectious agents are thought to be rogue prion proteins.
In contrast to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (3), but like human transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (4), scrapie displays a strong risk dependency on PRNP genotype (4).
Atypical scrapie may have been in the flock for many years, but advances in surveillance technology make it easier to detect and it has been found in 80,000 of the UK's 17 million-strong breeding flock.
It has warned that it cannot rule out a danger to humans from atypical scrapie in sheep, which is similar to BSE in cattle.