sculpin

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sculpin,

common name for a member of the superfamily Cottoidea, bizarre fishes with large, spiny or armored heads and short, tapering bodies, found in both marine and freshwater habitats. The sculpins include species known as muddlers (i.e., the mottled sculpin) and some species called bullheads (i.e., the deepwater bullhead sculpins). Sculpins are cosmopolitan in arctic and northern waters. They feed at the bottom on crabs and small fishes. Of little food value, they are occasionally used as bait. The longhorn sculpin (1 ft/30 cm) and the shorthorn sculpin have sharp spines on the head. Sculpins have no scales, but are variously adorned with prickles on the head and fins. The sea raven has large teeth and a prickly skin and swells when caught. The cabezon of the Pacific reaches a weight of 25 lb (11.3 kg). The muddlers are a widespread freshwater group found in northeastern and Mississippi basin streams with gravel bottoms. They have huge pectoral fins shaped like butterfly wings with which they hang onto stones. The fatheads, or fathead sculpins, include the blobfish, a deep-sea fish found off Australia and New Zealand, whose large head and pink gelatinous flesh can assume a sad humanlike appearance out of water. The grotesque sea robins and flying gurnards, with fins modified into "wings" and "talons" for creeping on the ocean floor, resemble the sculpins but belong to families not classified in the superfamily Cottoidea. Sculpins are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Actinopterygii, order Scorpaeniformes.

sculpin

[′skəl·pən]
(vertebrate zoology)
Any of several species of small fishes in the family Cottidae characterized by a large head that sometimes has spines, spiny fins, broad mouth, and smooth, scaleless skin.
References in periodicals archive ?
Interspecific resource competition between the invasive round goby and three native species: logperch, slimy sculpin, and spoonhead sculpin.
Biologists working in streams and rivers in western Washington and Oregon regularly encounter sculpins that are either C.
Differences in assemblages between pregear and gear-present phases were illustrated by significant vector loadings associated with flatfish, hermit crab, sculpin, sea star, and true crab (Brachyura).
The largest fish were Arctic staghorn sculpin, Gymnocantheus tricuspis, with an estimated mean length of 17.9 cm (range 16.1-18.9), followed by shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius, at 16.2 cm (range 12.1-18.5; Table 5).
Arctic cod dominated trawl catches (56% of total catch), and Arctic cod, slender eelblenny (Lumpenus fabricii) and unidentified small sculpins accounted for 87% of the total trawl catch.
Eleven species were collected only in riffles and included brook silverside, channel catfish, emerald shiner, mottled sculpin, rainbow darter, redfin shiner, river carpsucker, shorthead redhorse, smallmouth buffalo, stonecat, and walleye.
1 1 0.27 Hippoglossus stenolepis 1 1 0.27 Citharichthys sordidus 3 3 0.8 Parophrys uetulus 1 1 0.27 Platichthys stellatus 2 2 0.53 unidentified flatfishes 5 5 1.33 Reef-dwelling fishes Rockfishes Sebastes melanops 6 6 1.6 Sebastes saxicola 1 1 0.27 unidentified rockfishes 7 9 1.87 Greenlings Hexagrammos decagrammus 3 3 0.8 Ophiodon elongatus 2 2 0.53 Unidentified fishes 28 33 7.47 Sculpins Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus 3 3 0.8 Scorpaenichthys marmoratus 2 2 0.53 Unidentified sculpins 9 9 2.4 Invertebrates Octopus Octopus bimaculatus 26 30 6.93 Octopus dof eini 5 5 1.33 Loligo opalescens 3 3 0.8 Pandalus spp.
The largest denticles occur in the middle of the scutes and tubercles, with smaller ones towards the margins; in the fourhorn sculpin, however, the largest denticles occur at the margins.
In turn, Diporeia was fed upon by many fish species, including the commercially important lake whitefish, and forage fish such as alewife, bloater, and sculpin that serve as prey for larger piscivores (salmon, trout) (Scott and Crossman 1973, Wells 1980).
The comparatively high concentrations of Fe in the liver of the four-horn sculpins from the Archipelago Sea, which is unpolluted regarding metals (Grimas et al., 1993), may be explained by the high Fe concentrations in the sediments (Muller, 1999), though for Mn the explanation is open for discussion especially because the concentrations of this metal are of the same order of magnitude also at Kasmu--all in contrast to the moderate concentration of Mn in the liver of four-horn sculpins from Tva-1, the Tvarminne area being continuously contaminated especially by Fe and Mn (Voigt, 2003a; Table 1).
Yellowstone cutthroats dine primarily on insects, but will occasionally pursue juvenile sculpins, whitefish, suckers and even small trout.
Barnacles, dog whelks, brittle stars, sculpins and sea urchins.