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term used as synonymous with oceanocean,
interconnected mass of saltwater covering 70.78% of the surface of the earth, often called the world ocean. It is subdivided into four (or five) major units that are separated from each other in most cases by the continental masses. See also oceanography.
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, or a subdivision of an ocean (Caribbean Sea, Yellow Sea), or erroneously designating a large salt lakelake,
inland body of standing water occupying a hollow in the earth's surface. The study of lakes and other freshwater basins is known as limnology. Lakes are of particular importance since they act as catchment basins for close to 40% of the landscape, supply drinking water,
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 (Caspian Sea, Dead Sea, Aral Sea).



a part of the world’s oceans that is more or less set apart by land or elevations of the submarine terrain and primarily distinguished from the open ocean by hydrological, meteorological, and climatic conditions. The distinguishing characteristics of a sea result from its position on the margin of the ocean, which means that land has a significant influence on it, and from the limited connection with the open ocean, which is reflected primarily in slower water exchange. Thus, the more a sea is enclosed by land, the more it differs from the ocean. Some open parts of the ocean are arbitrarily called seas—for example, the Sargasso Sea in the northern Atlantic and the Philippine Sea in the western Pacific. Some lakes are called seas (for example, the Aral Sea and Dead Sea), and some seas are called gulfs or bays (Hudson Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Persian Gulf). The diversity of characteristics associated with seas makes their classification very difficult. The most complex classifications belong to German scientists (Krummel [1878] and others); the most complete are the classifications of the Soviet oceanographers lu. M. Shokal’skii (1917), N. N. Zubov and A. V. Everling (1940), and A. M. Muromtsev (1951).

Seas are divided into three groups on the basis of their degree of isolation and their hydrological conditions: internal seas (inland and semienclosed seas), marginal seas, and interisland seas. Inland seas are sometimes divided according to geographical position into intercontinental and intracontinental seas. (See Table 1 for data on some major seas.)

From a geological point of view, the modern seas are young formations. All of them had been established in nearly their present-day outlines in Paleocene-Neocene times and took final shape in the Anthropogenic period. The deepest seas formed at the points of major faults in the earth’s crust (for example, the Mediterranean Sea). Shallow seas appeared when the waters of the ocean flooded the marginal parts of the continents as they subsided or the level of the ocean was uplifted; they are usually located on the continental shelf.

The climates of seas are distinguished by features of greater or lesser continentality, depending on the degree to which they are isolated by land. This is primarily reflected in the magnification of seasonal fluctuations in air and surface water temperature. Some seas are warmer than neighboring open parts of the ocean on the surface and at greater depths (for example, the Red Sea), whereas others are colder (the Sea of Okhotsk); this depends on geographic position. Seas have all the extreme values of salinity of the world’s oceans; in the open part of the Baltic Sea, salinity is only 6.0-8.0 parts per thousand ( whereas in the Red Sea it reaches 41.5׉. Water density in the seas also reaches extreme values, in conformity with the distribution of extreme values of temperature and salinity (density of 1.0100 g/cm3 in the Baltic Sea and 1.0287 g/cm3 in the Red Sea).

Cyclonic currents predominate in seas because of the prevalence of the cyclonic system of winds above the seas and the continental discharge, which is deflected in the corresponding direction by the force of the earth’s rotation.

The organic world of the seas differs from that of the open ocean in a larger percentage of forms not found in other regions (endemics) and often also in a relatively greater variety. Both phenomena are based on the isolation of the sea basins and the differences in conditions in comparatively limited spaces. An additional factor is differences in the geological history of the basins.


Shokal’skii, lu. M. Okeanografiia, 2nd ed. Leninigrad, 1959.
Muromtsev, A. M. “Opyt raionirovaniia Mirovogo okeana.” Trudy Cos. okeanograficheskogo in-ta, 1951, no. 10.
Leonov, A. K. Regional’naia okeanografiia, part 1. Leningrad, 1960. More [collection]. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from French.)


What does it mean when you dream about the sea?

See Ocean.


A usually salty lake lacking an outlet to the ocean.
A major subdivision of the ocean.
A heavy swell or ocean wave still under the influence of the wind that produced it.


god of the seas. [Norse Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 12]
queen of the sea; Poseidon’s wife. [Gk. Myth.: NCE, 94]
standard navigational work, American Practical Navigator; so called from its compiler, Nathaniel Bowditch. [Am. Hist.: Hart, 97]
Clement the First, St.
drowned bound to anchor; invoked in marine dedications. [Christian Hagiog.: Attwater, 88]
mad with grief, he battles the sea. [Irish Myth.: Benét, 239]
god of waves, which continually mourn him. [Celtic Myth.: Leach, 332; Jobes, 480]
Jones, Davy
personification of the ocean. [Br. and Am. Marine Slang: Leach, 298]
Irish god of the sea. [Irish Folklore: Briggs, 280]
half-woman, half-fish; seen by sailors. [western Folklore: Misc.]
fifty daughters of Nereus; attendants of Poseidon. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 174]
son of Oceanus; father of the Nereids. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 174; Gk. Lit.: Iliad]
Njorthr Scandinavian
god; protector of sailors and ships. [Norse Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 760]
three thousand daughters of Oceanus and Tethys. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 178]
consort of Neptune and goddess of springs. [Rom. Myth.: Kravitz, 208]
goddess-wife of Oceanus. [Gk. Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 1070]
sea deity and mother of Achilles. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 269; Gk. Lit.: Odyssey]
primeval sea represented as a dragon goddess, mother of all the gods. [Babylonian Myth.: Benét, 1007]
three-pronged fork; attribute of Poseidon. [Gk. Myth.: Hall, 309]
gigantic sea deity; son and messenger of Poseidon. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 277; Rom. Lit.: Aeneid]
god over the waters. [Vedic Myth.: Leach, 1155]


a. the mass of salt water on the earth's surface as differentiated from the land
b. (as modifier): sea air
a. one of the smaller areas of ocean
b. a large inland area of water
3. turbulence or swell, esp of considerable size
4. Astronomy any of many huge dry plains on the surface of the moon



(1) See coulomb.

(2) A high-level programming language developed at Bell Labs that is also able to manipulate the computer at a low level like assembly language. Developed in the 1970s, by the end of the 1980s, C became the language of choice for developing commercial software. There are C/C++ compilers for all major platforms. C, and its object-oriented successor C++, are used to write a huge variety of applications and many operating systems. In 1989, C was standardized by ANSI (X3J11 committee) and ISO.

C++ (C Plus Plus)
Created by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983, C++ added object-oriented programming (OOP) to C. Originally called "C with Classes," C++ became the standard C language, often designated as C/C++. In contrast, Smalltalk and other object-oriented languages did not provide the familiar structures of conventional languages such as C and Pascal. See object-oriented programming, Smalltalk, Visual C++, Objective-C, C# and Managed C++.

Nothing But Functions
C and C++ are written as a series of functions that call each other for processing. Even the body of the program is a function named "main." Functions are very flexible, allowing programmers to choose from the standard library or write their own, which they do in every program. They can also use third-party libraries for specific purposes. See function.

Its Origin
C was developed to allow Unix to run on a variety of computers. After Bell Labs' Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie created Unix and got it running on several PDP computers, they wanted a way to easily port it to other machines without having to rewrite it from scratch. Thompson created the B language, which was a simpler version of the BCPL language, itself a version of CPL. Later, in order to improve B, Thompson and Ritchie created C.

The following examples convert Fahrenheit to centigrade in C and C++. For another example of C code, see event loop.

 In C

 main()   {
  float fahr;
  printf("Enter Fahrenheit: ");
  scanf("%f", &fahr);
  printf("Celsius is %f\n", (fahr-32)*5/9);

 In C++

 void main() {
  float fahr;
  cout << "Enter Fahrenheit: "; 
  cin >> fahr;
  fahr = (((fahr-32)*5)/9);
  cout << "Celsius = " << fahr << endl;
  return 0;


Waters generally symbolize the emotions and the unconscious. They could also represent the collective unconscious or your soul experiences. All dream interpretations depend on the individuals personal belief system and life experiences.
References in classic literature ?
I shall carry tidings of you to the watcher by the sea, if in my journey round the world I find her there."
The Spirits surely will not harm me, when I tell them why I am come; and if I win the flame, I shall be the happiest Spirit in the sea, for my promise will be kept, and the poor mother happy once again.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground- tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
"Empty clam-shells and dry seaweed!" snorted Sea Catch.
Matkah used to go to sea to get things to eat, and the baby was fed only once in two days, but then he ate all he could and throve upon it.
He could see him sailing upon the sea, and it made him very angry, so he wagged his head and muttered to himself, saying, "Good heavens, so the gods have been changing their minds about Ulysses while I was away in Ethiopia, and now he is close to the land of the Phaeacians, where it is decreed that he shall escape from the calamities that have befallen him.
Thereon he gathered his clouds together, grasped his trident, stirred it round in the sea, and roused the rage of every wind that blows till earth, sea, and sky were hidden in cloud, and night sprang forth out of the heavens.
During the day a formidable troop of sharks accompanied us, terrible creatures, which multiply in these seas and make them very dangerous.
For an hour I saw nothing but the naked, desolate sea. And then, where a vagrant shaft of sunlight struck the ocean and turned its surface to wrathful silver, I caught a small black speck thrust skyward for an instant and swallowed up.
It was the wintry, murky time of cold gales and heavy seas. With the snapping of her tail-shaft her life seemed suddenly to depart from her big body, and from a stubborn, arrogant existence she passed all at once into the passive state of a drifting log.
The self same moment I could pray; And from my neck so free The Albatross fell off, and sank Like lead into the sea.