cephalosporin

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cephalosporin

(sĕf'əlōspôr`ĭn), any of a group of more than 20 antibioticsantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 derived from species of fungi of the genus Cephalosporium and closely related chemically to penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
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. Cephalosporins, e.g., cefaclor (Ceclor), act against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stainGram's stain,
laboratory staining technique that distinguishes between two groups of bacteria by the identification of differences in the structure of their cell walls. The Gram stain, named after its developer, Danish bacteriologist Christian Gram, has become an important tool
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) by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. They are widely used to treat gonorrhea, meningitis, and staphylococcal and streptococcal infections in patients who cannot use penicillin. Overuse of cephalosporins has led to increased bacterial resistance to the drugs (see drug resistancedrug resistance,
condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously
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.)

cephalosporin

[‚sef·ə·lə′spȯr·ən]
(microbiology)
Any of a group of antibiotics produced by strains of the imperfect fungus Cephalosporium.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cited previously, the case-control study screening medical records of 1.4 million elderly patients reported 470 patients evaluated in an emergency department or hospital for hyperglycemia within 30 days after receiving a fluoroquinolone, macrolide, or second-generation cephalosporin. Once again, gatifloxacin was shown to have the highest risk with an adjusted odds ratio of 16.9 vs a macrolide.
In another instance, second-generation cephalosporin antibiotics on the state's approved list include Cefaclor, Cefaclor ER, Ceftin, Cefril, Ceptaz, and Rocephin, while Cedor CD, Ceclor, Cefotan, and Lorabid must receive prior authorization.
Several other patients were admitted with Proteus urinary tract infections that responded to a second-generation cephalosporin. They were readmitted in less than a month with the same infections, however, and the pathogen was now resistant to ampicillin and first-, second-, and third-generation cephalosporins.
Case-patients were significantly more likely than controls to have received a [beta]-lactam/[beta]-lactamase inhibitor (HR 2.48; p < 0.001), a first- or second-generation cephalosporin (HR 1.39; p = 0.04), a third-generation cephalosporin (HR 2.98, p < 0.001), or a ureidopenicillin (HR 2.91, p < 0.001).
In another instance, second-generation cephalosporin antibiotics on the approved list include Cefaclor, Cefaclor ER, Ceftin, Cefzil, Ceptaz, and Rocephin, while Ceclor CD, Ceclor, Cefotan, and Lorabid must receive authorization.
Michigan's prior authorization list, for example, allows second-generation cephalosporin antibiotics Cefaclor, Cefaclor ER, Ceftin, Cefzil, Ceptaz, and Rocephin without prior authorization, while Ceclor CD, Ceclor, Cefotan, and Lorabid must receive authorization.