Systemic AA amyloidosis (formerly secondary amyloidosis
) is due to tissue deposition of serum amyloid A, which is an acute phase reactant produced by the liver.
Most patients progress to chronic renal failure, while histological regression and/or clinical remission has been observed in a few instances of secondary amyloidosis
after adequate treatment of the predisposing disease.
Recently, we reported that AKU is a novel kind of secondary amyloidosis
 and also assessed the presence of AA amyloid in AKU heart .
Because of the presence of renal failure and nephrotic syndrome, the patient was hospitalized and underwent a renal biopsy, which detected secondary amyloidosis
. Furthermore, FMF with the heterozygous E148Q gene mutation was also found in our patient.
In up to 25% of patients carrying mutations involving cysteine residues and in about 2% of those carrying low-penetrance mutations, the emergence of secondary amyloidosis
should be kept in mind.
Often a major complication of FMF is the development of secondary amyloidosis
, this usually affects the kidneys.
(7) This represents the coexistence of two separate but overlapping diseases of the plasma cell and shouldn't be wrongly labelled as multiple myeloma with secondary amyloidosis
Some are believed to be related to the CD itself (proximal tubular dysfunction, secondary amyloidosis
, calcium oxalate stones, tubular proteinuria with normal renal function, and TIN), some are related to drug complications (TIN), and some rare conditions may be coincidental (IgA nephropathy, IgM nephropathy, minimal-change glomerulonephritis, membranous glomerulonephritis, antiglomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and crescentic glomerulonephritis).
most often arises as a complication of an underlying chronic inflammatory disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn disease, tuberculosis, bronchiectasis, and chronic osteomyelitis.
is a process which can result from various chronic inflammatory reactions, which leads to amyloid deposits in several tissues.
Clinically, primary amyloidosis is distinguishable from secondary amyloidosis
In secondary amyloidosis
, a reduction in amyloid deposition may occur following successful treatment of the underlying disease.