Thus, the second step in the criminalization of juvenile behavior is its classification as either primary or secondary deviance, as a result of symbolic interaction.
Edwin Lemert (1967) developed the primary deviance and secondary deviance typology to explain the process by which individuals are labeled by authority figures.
As the label persists, and those negative feelings intensify, the individual begins to accept the "deviant" label, which may lead to secondary deviance.
He explains the sociological perspectives, including it being a secondary deviance
, victim advocacy, and fallout from revelations.
According to this perspective the acquiring of the identity of "drug addict" is, therefore, the result of a process of social interaction, as the definition that the subject gives of himself and his situation is influenced by the perception that others have of the subject himself (on this matter the transition from primary deviance to secondary deviance is crucial as described by Lemert 1951).
They are less free since the jeopardizing of the most important social functionings can foster the move from primary deviance to secondary deviance (subjects can turn to drug services in order to tackle physical health, mental health, work and family problems, or they can incur legal problems).
Third, many of the previous attempts to confirm labeling theory's secondary deviance hypothesis have been in the form of integrated theoretical models (Menard & Morse, 1984; Simons et al.
The symbolic interaction perspective provides the conceptual and theoretical foundation for labeling theory's secondary deviance hypothesis.
Thus, the overly deterministic view (Akers, 1967) of labeling theory's secondary deviance hypothesis appears unwarranted.
George Vincentnathan in "Social Reaction and Secondary Deviance
in Culture and Society: The United States and Japan" also points to the corrosive effect of the American Dream and its associated individualism.
The reader focuses on extreme or secondary deviance
, those deviations that cause the group or society to stigmatize and isolate the normative violator.