Secondary Education


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Secondary Education

 

the traditional name for the main stage of educational systems of most countries. The term arose as education became differentiated into primary, secondary, and higher levels; toward the late Middle Ages it came to refer to the intermediate stage between primary and higher (university) education in connection with the development of industry, science, and culture. The system of secondary education that took form during the 15th and 16th centuries was called classical education; Gymnasiums were the principal type of educational institutions. In the 18th century, Realschule education, provided mainly by Realschulen, also developed. In the 19th and early 20th centuries these systems of education were adopted by most countries. In prerevolutionary Russia, general secondary education was provided primarily by Gymnasiums, Realschulen, and commercial schools.

Secondary education may be general or specialized. General secondary education provides systematized knowledge of the fundamentals of various subjects. It also teaches the abilities and skills necessary for work in various areas of the nation’s economy, culture, and everyday life and for obtaining a specialized education in vocational-technical, secondary, and higher educational institutions. General secondary education is provided in secondary general-education schools. In the USSR and some other countries, it is also provided in vocational-technical educational institutions together with vocational training and in specialized secondary educational institutions as a prerequisite for obtaining a specialty.

Specialized secondary education consists of general secondary education and a combination of theoretical and practical knowledge and vocational skills and abilities in a given specialty.

The content and tasks of general and specialized secondary education vary according to the requirements of social production and are influenced by social relations, the state of science, technology, and culture, and the level of public education and pedagogy. In the USSR and other socialist countries, universal secondary education, in close connection with communist upbringing, has as its goal the overall development of the individual. In the capitalist countries, secondary education is class-oriented and permeated by bourgeois ideology; in many of these countries it is inaccessible to the broad masses of the working people.

E. O. KONOKOTIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Albert Nsengiyumva, executive secretary of ADEA commented: 'African countries need to reform secondary education starting from attracting strong applicants in the teaching profession, and training and retraining adequate numbers of teachers, as well as providing work skills for young people to increase their adaptability and resilience.' He also highlighted the importance of innovative financing mechanisms for sustainability, and giving more priority to technical, vocational and educational training (TVET) as well as science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) and ICT by strengthening public-private partnerships (PPPs).
'The IRISE project takes a system approach to address critical foundational issues and challenges facing the secondary education level in the country.
It will also help strengthen the secondary education curriculum and increase teacher proficiency and career development.
Mehmood (2011) is of the view that recognizing importance of secondary education there is a need to make it relevant to the needs of stakeholders and market.
Secondary education provides the perfect opportunity for learners to cultivate the knowledge, skills, personality, character and all they need to cope with and manage a rapidly complex and changing environment.
It was agreed to rectify four points, including the one relating to retirement at age 57 and to broaden the scope of the diseases eligible for early retirement, through a joint committee between the Ministry of Education and the General Union of Secondary Education, said the same source.
First, it is grounded in the Constitution, which requires the government to provide free and compulsory basic education for all children.BASIC EDUCATIONIt is the peculiar function of basic education elementary and secondary education to prepare children for the future to develop the child for adulthood.
The report notes that a study of 100 countries showed that simply by increasing the share of girls completing secondary education by 1pc increases economic growth by 0.3pc.
"Distribution of free textbooks among the students of primary and secondary levels, increased enrolment rate and eradicating gender inequality in primary and secondary education have already been acknowledged in different international forums," he added.
The Transforming Secondary Education for Results (TSER) program will support the government's 'Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP).' It will focus on improving education quality and access, and that students -- especially girls and children from low-income households -- complete secondary education.
In 2017, WISE partnered with Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee to conduct a research report on secondary education with policy recommendations titled, 'Transition and Dropout in Lower Income Countries: Case studies of secondary education in Bangladesh and Uganda'.
In 2017, WISE partnered with BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) to conduct a research report on secondary education with policy recommendations titled, 'Transition and Dropout in Lower Income Countries: Case studies of secondary education in Bangladesh and Uganda'.

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