hemorrhage

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hemorrhage

(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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Hemorrhage

 

escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.

A. B. GALITSKII

hemorrhage

[′hem·rij]
(medicine)
The escape of blood from the vascular system.

haemorrhage

(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
We found 2.65% cases of secondary hemorrhage in day-case group and 1.8% cases in inpatient group.
But unlike our study the reactionary and secondary hemorrhage rates were unaffected by the surgical method.
Conclusion: Dexamethasone given postoperatively significantly reduces the morbidity that is pain, episodes of emesis thus early recovery to a normal lifestyle with no effect on secondary hemorrhage in patients undergoing Tonsillectomy by dissection method.
Reported rates of secondary hemorrhage following tonsillectomy vary widely--between 1.0 and 9.9% (10,12,15-18) The rate has been reported to be only 1 to 2% when investigators counted only those patients who required hospital readmission, but it was as high as 9.9% when patients were specifically asked about all bleeding events, including minor ones.
This p value shows that our results were not significant for secondary hemorrhage.
Episodes of secondary hemorrhage were recorded, but no treatment under general anesthesia was necessary for any of these patients.
I can state with confidence that the rate of primary hemorrhage is much lower than the rate of secondary hemorrhage after tonsillectomy.
However, there is no consensus in the literature regarding the relative incidence of primary and secondary hemorrhage. Some authors have published reports in which primary hemorrhage was more common, some have reported that it was less common, and some have reported that rates were similar.
Primary post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (<24 hr postoperatively) is generally considered to be more common and more serious than secondary hemorrhage (>24 hr).
Three patients experienced secondary hemorrhage, one of whom required surgical intervention.
[10] Although the cause of secondary (delayed) bleeding is less certain, the sloughing of the superficial eschar from the tonsillar fossa is believed to be the inciting event.[8]Early studies reported an equal incidence of primary and delayed bleeding, but most recent articles cite a lower rate of primary hemorrhage; they also describe the rate of secondary hemorrhage as low and stable.11,12]