In this series, the cross-sectional area of secondary reinforcement varies from 0.0% to 0.45% and the models are analysed under the action of vertical loadings.
The results show clearly that presence of additional secondary reinforcement resulted in an increase in load-carrying capacity as well as in ductility of corbels.
The required cross-sectional area of the secondary reinforcement is calculated as:
Contribution of Secondary Reinforcement. With respect to the formulation shown in the previous section, instead of [lambda] and [[omega].sub.1] the parameters [alpha] and [[omega].sub.2] are now involved, which are expressed in (3) and (13), respectively.
The actual stress at the upper "fibre" of the uniformly distributed secondary reinforcement, denoted as [f.sub.s1] in Figure 5(c), can be expressed by separately evaluating the stress [f.sub.e1] that one would have in the case of infinitely elastic behaviour and the difference [DELTA][f.sub.1] due to the actual postyielding behaviour.
Analogously, at the lower fibre of the secondary reinforcement one has
If teachers can reinforce desired behavior with a naturally occurring secondary reinforcer that helps students to obtain desired consequences without challenging behavior, there may be no need to fade from primary to secondary reinforcement
. This is why a functional behavior assessment is integral to effective treatment.
Similar effects were identified when secondary reinforcement
layers were introduced in a model with large reinforcement spacing.
and rate of primary reinforcement.
Two further experiments (Armus et al., 1964) showed that the finding of greater secondary reinforcement strength for a nonredundant, informative stimulus paired with FR food reinforcement rather than with CRF reinforcement holds only if a between-groups design is used, one group being trained under FR reinforcement conditions, and one under CRF.
For secondary reinforcement testing, carried out under extinction conditions, the center lever was replaced by two levers, one on the left (L) and one on the right (R).
(1947), The role of secondary reinforcement
in delayed reward learning.