Otitis

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otitis

[ō′tīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the ear.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Otitis

 

inflammation of the external, middle, or internal ear.

Otitis externa affects the skin of the auricle and external auditory meatus and proceeds with the formation of furuncles and eczema, as in other skin inflammations.

Otitis media may be acute or chronic. The acute form results from the penetration of microbes into the middle ear from the nose and nasopharynx in influenza and other infectious diseases. It occurs more often in children than in adults, because children are more susceptible to colds and adenoids. The symptoms are shooting pains in the ear, loss of hearing, elevated temperature, and suppurative discharges from the ear that often appear in the first day and sometimes even the first hours of the disease. In infants, acute otitis media causes restlessness and insomnia. The baby cries, turns its head, holds the affected ear with its hand, and refuses the breast because pain in the ear intensifies with swallowing. The inflammation is treated by tamponade with an alcoholic solution of boric acid or some other antiseptic; in some cases the tympanic membrane is punctured by paracentesis. In most cases, recovery is possible with prompt treatment. However, if the body is debilitated and other conditions are unfavorable, the disease may become chronic, in which case pus is discharged from the ear, and hearing is permanently impaired. Inflammation of the internal ear and meningitis—inflammation of the brain membranes—are possible complications.

Inflammation of the internal ear—labyrinthitis, or otitis interna—arises not only with otitis media but often in children with epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis. When labyrinthitis is diffuse, all or almost all the endings of the acoustic nerve in the internal ear die, and complete or almost complete deafness results. With localized labyrinthitis hearing is partly preserved. Labyrinthitis is treated with antibiotics and surgery of the temporal bone.

REFERENCE

Temkin, Ia. S. Ostryi otit i ego oslozhneniia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1955.

L. V. NEIMAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Comparison of the incidence of cholesteatoma surgery before and after using ventilation tubes for secretory otitis media. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2000;56(1):41-4.
Secretory otitis media recurred in 31% of children who used the active spray, compared with 56% of those who used the placebo spray.
In this study of 100 cases, incidence of secretory otitis media was noted to be highest in the age group of 7-8 years and there were 40 male cases and 60 female cases.
Relevant and irrelevant predisposing factors in secretory otitis media. Acta Otolaryngol 1984; 414 (suppl):147-53.
Ventilation tubes in secretory otitis media. A randomised controlled study of the course, the complications and the sequelae of ventilation tubes.
The intraluminal obstructive pathogenic concept of eustachian tube in secretory otitis media. In: Sade J, ed.
EX VACUO: Ex Vacuo theory implicates tubal obstruction and dysfunction as a principal primary cause for chronic secretory otitis media. Tubal component is likely to be involved and this is supported by the universality of chronic secretory otitis media in children with a cleft palate.
Surgery of the tonsils and adenoids in relation to secretory otitis media in children.
Reddy, Venu Gopal: Secretory otitis media. Indian Jr.
Tympanometry and secretory otitis media. Observations on diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and prevention in prospective cohort studies of three-year-old children.
(16.) Reddy, Venu Gopal: Secretory otitis media. Indian Jr.