The prestressed beam, simply supported at the ends with the cross section A = 0.3045 [m.sup.2], has the span L = 18.3 m, the width b = 1.22 m, the height h = 0.61 m, and the

section modulus [Z.sub.t] = 0.0352 [m.sup.3] and [Z.sub.b] = -0.03869 [m.sup.3]; the limit stresses are [f.sub.tt] = -1.34 MPa, [f.sub.tc] = 17.38 MPa, [f.sub.sc] = 18.6 MPa, and [f.sub.st] = -3.21 MPa; the dead weight is [W.sub.t] = 8.76 kN/m; and 500 kg of TNT exploded 200 m away from the bridge while traffic load [W.sub.tr].

Curtis and Hendrick (1969) determined that the

section modulus in bending varied with the third power of the diameter for cotton stalks of diameters ranging from 7 to 16 mm.

These results are in reasonable agreement with the reduction in the

section modulus of the lumber.

where [[sigma].sub.L] is stress of dowel where strain gauge is located, [E.sub.d] is dowel modulus, [[epsilon].sub.L] is measured strain, [M.sub.L] is section bending moment where strain gauge located, [W.sub.z] is

section modulus in bending, [P.sub.c] is shear force carried by the critical dowel, [beta] is relative stiffness of the dowel bar encased in concrete, [x.sub.L] is distance of strain gauge from joint face in the prototype, z is joint width, [delta] is shear deflection, [lambda] is form factor, A is cross-sectional area of the dowel bar, G is shear modulus, [y.sup.0] is joint deflection at joint face, DD is measured differential deflection, [[sigma].sub.b] is bearing stress, and [K.sub.0] is modulus of dowel support.

As the fatigue crack length grows, the

section modulus is getting smaller, which will cause the decrease of static strength.

Along with the ultimate strength, it is also worth calculating the

section modulus of the corroded box girder over time.

Finally the pure bending stress calculated by dividing the total bending moment by the shaft rectangular

section modulus:

For a more precise estimation of the remaining geometrical parameters of a crosssection-a section area, the second moment of the area,

section modulus and eccentricities - the section was divided into four parts (see Fig.

Therefore, the transformation takes place at different times in sections of differing

section modulus. This can result in inconsistent dimensional response and micro- and macro-cracking.

The stress values can be computed easily by dividing the maximum bending moment to the beam

section modulus. Applied force was measured very precisely by the force transducer.

The researchers used hip structural analysis to calculate several measures of bone geometry, including the outer diameter, the bone cross-sectional area, the

section modulus (an indicator of bending strength), the estimated mean cortical thickness, and the estimated buckling ratio (an estimate of cortical stability in buckling) from DXA hip scans.

W =

section modulus of the cross- section [[mm.sup.3]]