A GC-MS analysis of trimethylsilyl derivatives of this fraction indicated the presence of phenolic compounds such as gallic acid and the alkaloid securinine. The [IC.sub.50] values of these two compounds were determined to be in the range of 3-16 [micro]M, which indicated that they could contribute to the cytotoxic activity of the extract of M.
Previously, alkaloids such as viroallosecurinine and securinine (Mensah et al., 1990; Weenen et al., 1990), and flavonoids have been isolated from M.
Securinine was purchased from Abeam Biochemicals, U.K.
Among them, the major compounds were cis-gallocatechin (28, 21.6%), trans-gallocatechin (29,43.0%), sucrose (25, 7.16%), (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (22, 2.05%), and the alkaloid securinine (16, 2.06%) (Supporting information).
After literature search of the possible biological activities of the identified compounds (1-29), we suspected that securinine and gallic acid could contribute to the cytotoxicity of the extract of M.
Securinine, a major natural alkaloid product from the root of the plant Securinega suffruticosa, has been reported to have potent biological activity and has been used clinically in several countries .
In the present study, to determine whether securinine can suppress glial inflammatory activation and act as a mediator of neuroinflammation, we tested the effects of securinine on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced activation of microglia and astrocytes.
The cells were allowed to settle for 24 h before the addition of different concentrations of securinine for 24 h (Sigma Aldrich, USA).
The microglia, astrocytes, and macrophages cultures were exposed to inflammation inducing agents in presence or absence of different concentration of securinine for 24 h.
Cells were preexposed to securinine followed by cotreatment with LPS for 24 hr treatment.