sedative


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Related to sedative: Sedative drugs

sedative,

any of a variety of drugs that relieve anxiety. Most sedatives act as mild depressantsdepressant,
any one of various substances that diminish functional activity, usually by depressing the nervous system. Barbiturates, sedatives, alcohol, and meprobamate are all depressants. Depressants have various modes of action and effects.
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 of the nervous system, lessening general nervous activity or reducing the irritability or activity of a specific organ. Sedatives taken in small quantities are useful in relieving coughing, nausea, or convulsions and in lessening anxiety. In increasing doses sedatives act as hypnotics (see hypnotic drugshypnotic drugs,
drugs that induce sleep, sometimes called soporifics. In general, hypnotics are central nervous system depressants. Alcohol, laudanum (see opium), bromide salts, and herbs such as valerian have been used as hypnotics.
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), i.e., they induce sleep, and as anesthetics. Many sedatives, including barbituratesbarbiturate
, any one of a group of drugs that act as depressants on the central nervous system. High doses depress both nerve and muscle activity and inhibit oxygen consumption in the tissues. In low doses barbiturates act as sedatives, i.e.
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, meprobamatemeprobamate
, tranquilizing drug that acts as a depressant of the central nervous system and is commonly used in the treatment of anxiety and sometimes schizophrenia. Although meprobamate is chemically unlike barbiturates and has lower toxicity, it has similar pharmacological
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 (Miltown), and benzodiazepinesbenzodiazepine
, any of a class of drugs prescribed for their tranquilizing, antianxiety, sedative, and muscle-relaxing effects. Benzodiazepines are also prescribed for epilepsy and alcohol withdrawal.
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 (Librium and Valium), are habit-forming and should be taken only under medical direction. Chloral hydrate, ethyl alcohol, bromide salts, and antihistamines can all be used as sedatives. Tranquilizerstranquilizer,
drug whose action calms the central nervous system, decreasing emotional agitation without impairing alertness. Tranquilizing drugs differ from hypnotic drugs such as barbiturates in that they do not act on the brain's cortical areas but rather on its lower
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 are compounds that calm without excessively reducing mental alertness.

Sedative

 

one of a chemically heterogeneous group of medicinal substances of vegetable and synthetic origin that exert a calmative effect. In the narrow sense of the word, a sedative is a substance that produces only a calmative effect; this type includes valerian, motherwort, menthol, and bromides of sodium and potassium. Tranquilizers that dispel anxiety are known as anxiolytic sedatives; these tranquilizers include derivatives of propanediol (for example, meprotan), diphenylmethane (for example, actozine), benzodiazepin (for example, diazepam), and trioxazine. Also used as sedatives are somnifacients, including phenobarbital, which are used in small doses, and neuroleptics, for example, aminazine and Tisercin. Combined neuroleptics are also used, for example, Bekhterev’s mixture (sodium bromide and an infusion of adonis and codeine phosphate), Corvalol (ethyl ester of α-bromoisovaleric acid, phenobarbital sodium, mint oil, ethyl alcohol, and water), and Validol (a solution of menthol in menthyl ester of isovaleric acid).

Sedatives produce a calmative effect and decrease feelings of fear, anxiety, and mental tension without substantially interfering with attentiveness and mental and physical efficiency. They can therefore be used during the day. In therapeutic doses they are not themselves somnifacient but may promote the normalization of disrupted sleep. The mechanism of the action of sedatives is not completely clear. It is conjectured that sedatives are capable of selectively suppressing the subcortical (limbic) and cortical structures of the brain that regulate emotions.

Sedatives are used widely in modern medical practice. Surgically and anesthesiologically they are administered particularly during preoperative and postoperative procedures. They are used in treating such internal diseases as hypertension and myocardial infarction. Sedatives, however, have been and are used primarily in neuropathology and psychiatry in treating neuroses and other borderline mental diseases accompanied by obsessions, fear, and agitated depression (sometimes sedatives are combined with neuroleptics or antidepressants). Treatment is prolonged. Both the selection of a preparation and the appropriate individual dosage are important. Sedatives are usually tolerated well, and the side effects are insignificant. Sleepiness or lethargy may result from an overdose. Sedatives do not usually produce cumulation, habituation, or predilection,

REFERENCES

Mashkovskii, M. D. Lekarstvennye sredstva, 7th ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1972.
Aleksandrovskii, Iu. A. Klinieheskaia farmakologiia trankvilizalorov. Moscow, 1973.

K. S. RAEVSKII

sedative

[′sed·əd·iv]
(pharmacology)
An agent or drug that has a quieting effect on the central nervous system.

sedative

1. of or relating to sedation
2. Med a sedative drug or agent
References in classic literature ?
The doctor's composing draught, partially disturbed in its operation for the moment only, had recovered its sedative influence on his brain.
Holmes declares that he overheard me caution him against the great danger of taking more than two drops of castor oil, while I recommended strychnine in large doses as a sedative.
Whiskers, his beady squirrel's eye glittering from out his ruined eyebrow like a live coal in a jungle ambush, broke off long enough to down a sedative draught from his condensed milk can and to mix another.
But only experience can show what will have this sedative effect, and it is easy to make mistakes.
The action of opium is comprised, in the majority of cases, in two influences--a stimulating influence first, and a sedative influence afterwards.
The situation in which he found himself, indeed, was particularly favourable to the growth of these feelings; for, not to mention the lazy influence of a late and lonely breakfast, with the additional sedative of a newspaper, there was an air of repose about his place of residence peculiar to itself, and which hangs about it, even in these times, when it is more bustling and busy than it was in days of yore.
This skilful see-saw of Mr Dorrit and Mrs Merdle, so that each of them sent the other up, and each of them sent the other down, and neither had the advantage, acted as a sedative on Mr Dorrit's cough.
The primary endpoint is the successful completion of the colonoscopy procedure with no requirement for alternative sedative.
This blend of herbs, traditionally used for their sedative action, including passion flower, hops and wild lettuce, will soon help you drop off to sleep and without causing drowsiness the next day.
Hooper's article introduces a new tool, Predictable Factors in Sedative Music (PFSM).
Avoiding excessive sedation, daily sedative interruption (DSI) lessens the unnecessary use of sedatives and improves the prognosis of mechanically ventilated patients (16-17).
admitting to the interrogator that he bought the sedative pills and mixed them with my juice before he served it to me.