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farm or garden implement that places propagating material such as seeds or seedlings into the ground, usually in rows. Broadcasting, i.e., scattering seed in all directions, by hand followed by harrowing (see harrowharrow,
farm implement, consisting of a wooden or metal framework bearing metal disks, teeth, or sharp projecting points, called tines, which is dragged over plowed land to pulverize the clods of earth and level the soil.
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) to cover the seed with soil was an early method of planting. Mechanical planters for small grains appeared in the United States around 1800; corn and cotton planters followed (1840–1880). Machines are currently available for almost every crop, including transplanting or plant-setting machines, which place live seedlings into the soil at spaced intervals, supply them with water and fertilizer, then close and pack the soil around them.


See H. P. Smith, Farm Machinery and Equipment (5th ed. 1964); C. Culpin, Farm Machinery (8th ed. 1969).


A permanent, ornamental container to receive planted pots or boxes, often nonmovable and integral with the finish of a building.



a machine for the uniform sowing of crop and grass seed by depositing the seeds in the soil at the required depth. Planters can also be used for sowing tree seeds in nurseries and for depositing mineral fertilizers in the soil.

Planters are classified according to the sowing method. Seed drills deposit seeds continuously using the row, narrow-row, wide-row, or band seeding method. Checkrow planters deposit clusters of seeds at the corners of squares or rectangles. Hill-drop planters distribute clusters of seeds in rows. Single-seed planters sow individual seeds at uniform intervals in wide rows. Broadcasters scatter fertilizers and seeds, such as grass seed for improving natural pastures, onto the surface of a field.

A distinction is made between general-purpose and special-purpose planters. General-purpose planters are used for sowing seeds of various crops; for instance, planters designed for grain seeds and grain-and-grass seeds can be used for sowing seeds for grain, bean, and olive crops, grass seed, and seed for bast crops. Special-purpose planters are designed for sowing seed for a single crop or a limited number of crops, for example, beet, cotton, corn, and vegetable crops. Planters may be combined with fertilizer attachments that deposit mineral fertilizers in the soil.

Planters are also classified according to the traction method used as tractor-driven (mounted or trailer-type), horse-drawn, or manually propelled. Only tractor-driven planters are manufactured in the USSR.

Each planter has one or two hoppers or several separate boxes for the seeds. A seeding mechanism feeds the seeds at a uniform rate from the hopper or boxes to seed spouts. Shares form furrows in the soil, and the seeds are deposited in the furrows. Covering devices deposit soil in the furrows and level the surface of the field. Some planters have stirrers located in the hopper; the stirrers prevent the seeds from sticking together in clumps and ensure better feeding of the seeds to the seeding mechanism. In broadcasters, a flat distributing device is mounted behind the seeding mechanism; the seeds fall uniformly from the device onto the field. The working elements, that is, the seeding mechanisms and stirrers, are rotated by a direct drive (in mounted planters) or by a support-wheel drive (in trailer-type planters) using chain or gear drives. Foreign planters use similar engineering designs.

In the USSR other types of planters are also used for planting crop seeds. They include combination planter-plows, planter-cultivators, and planter-stubble plows. Planter-plows are equipped with a plow body, seed hoppers with seeding mechanisms, and seed spouts. The machines simultaneously plow and deposit seeds in the furrows formed by the plow body. Planter-cultivators are designed to work soil previously worked by machines without moldboards; they are also able to plant seeds in stubble land. They simultaneously sow, loosen the soil, cut weeds, deposit mineral fertilizer in the rows, and turn over the seeded rows. Planter-stubble plows have stubble disks and spool-type seeding mechanisms with seed spouts. The seeds pass through the spouts into furrows formed by the disks and are later covered with soil.


Karpenko, A. N., and A. A. Zelenev. Sel’skokhoziaistvennye mashiny, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1968.


A permanent, ornamental container to receive planted pots or boxes, often nonmovable and integral with the finish of a building.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), the draft force required by precision seeders moving through the field with a prepared seedbed is 900 N [+ or -] 25% per row (drawn-seeding only) and 3,400 N [+ or -] 35% per row (seeding, fertilizing and herbicide application).
To describe the motion of seeding opener with the oscillating scatterer of the grain-fertilizer seeder a kinematic model of the investigated mechanical system by using the following designations is considered (Fig.
The Philippine Center for Postharvest Development and Mechanization (PhilMech) is targeting to deploy before the end of the year at least 10 mechanical onion seeders that could improve farmers' yield.
With the use of the Mechanical Seeder that PHilMech has developed, she said a farmer or a cooperative can reduce their production cost since it can reduce the seed requirements per hectare from up to 18 tons to up to 15 tons.
The mechanical seeder is a tractor-trailed and drill type planter capable of opening a furrow, metering and delivering the seed to the furrow, and covering it while firming the seed bed.
Different approaches were made and experiments conducted over the past 12 years that led to the development of Pak Seeder. 'It is a unique technology that helps sow wheat without disturbing the soil condition or removing the rice residue,' said a statement issued by Parc.
He emphasized on importance of farmers' role and their cooperation with machinery manufactures and researchers in further development of PAK Seeder.
president Ronald Reagan created a premise for Estonia to regain independence," Seeder said.
Better stand establishment and grain yield were observed in turbo seeded wheat in comparison with happy seeder and zone disk tiller sown wheat.
(2005), working with a precision seeder, observed that the increase in velocity caused a decrease in traction power, increase in the operational field capacity and power in the drawbar.
26 January 2016 - French agricultural sprayer producer Exel Industries has sold the business of Herriau seeders to its importer in Belgium, Vallaey Landbouwmachines SA, the group said.
The ganged seeder not only sped up planting, it left uniform spacing, making mechanical cultivation possible.