During actual coal seam mining, the permeability of surrounding rock in the stope continuously changes and the changed fluid seepage force
would result in a change of the effective mining stress.
Yan, "Collapse mechanism for deep tunnel subjected to seepage force
in layered soils," Geomechanics and Engineering, vol.
On the one hand by comparing the design values of the total pore water pressure [u.sub.dst;d] with the total vertical stress [s.sub.stb;d] and on the other hand by comparison of the design values of the seepage force
[S.sub.dst;d] with the submerged weight [G'.sub.stb;d] of the same considered soil column (see Eqns (1) and (2)).
At the after failure stage as shown in Figure 4(d), the collapsed sand particle and water accelerated moving down under gravity and seepage force
. Debris flow is formed with sliding sand and flowed water.
[13, 14] [dF.sub.s] may be understood as a drop potential energy of ground water flow which may be expressed by gravity force of water volume, equal to the lower part of the slice volume saturated by water
 numerically analyzed the influence of the seepage force
generated by the flow of groundwater in the excavation face during tunnel construction and believed that the stability of the excavation face depends on the effective supporting pressure acting on the soil skeleton and the seepage force
induced by the water head difference over the excavation face.
The algorithm in DEA is based on particle flow code (PFC), seepage force
, and sliding friction coefficients [11, 12, 26, 30, 34].
For example, the problem found in a China river cross mining table was related to the state of high soil-water seepage force
and stress and effective control of seepage force
can well balance to minimize construct risk in a statistical parameter scope.
The increased water level difference inside and outside the slope also leads the increase of seepage force
. Then the seepage force
reaches the threshold value; the slope deformation would be triggered.
For partially submerged landslides, these forces are usually expressed in the form of porewater pressure, seepage force
, and buoyancy.
In the paper "Stability Analysis of Partially Submerged Landslide with the Consideration of the Relationship between Porewater Pressure and Seepage Force
For example, both the seepage force
and the surrounding hydrostatic pressure are considered in calculations, which cause repetition of the water forces in the equations and hence introduce more uncertainty.