This calibration usually involves seismic anisotropy
of shale deposits (e.g., Grechka et al., 2011).
Al-Anboori, "Seismic anisotropy
in a hydrocarbon field estimated from microseismic data," Geophysical Prospecting, vol.
is one of the most important properties characterizing the stress condition in the oceanic asthenosphere.
The measurement of seismic anisotropy
(the variation of seismic wave speed with direction) using the method of shear wave splitting (SWS) has been used to monitor variations in stress in industry but is generally only available in hindsight to studies of volcanoes and earthquakes.
(1998) Seismic Anisotropy
in the Deep Mantle, Boundary Layers and the Geometry of Mantle Convection Pure Appl.
(1989): Suggestions for consistent terminology for seismic anisotropy
. Geophysical Prospecting, 37: 753-770.
Estimates of lithospheric thickness range up to 300 km, and shear wave analyses indicate east-west seismic anisotropy
(Musacchio et al., in press).
Now, Barbara Romanowicz, a geophysicist at the University of California, Berkeley, and her colleagues contend that some of those seismic-wave studies missed an important factor known as seismic anisotropy
, a phenomenon in which some earthquake waves travel more quickly than others.
It was revealed that seismic anisotropy
is strongly related to foliation and is, in particular, an important property of the biotite gneisses, which dominate the upper and lower gneiss series.
(3,39) It is therefore strongly suggested that the texture developed in PPv by plastic shear deformation can be responsible for the seismic anisotropy
observed in the D" layer.
The existence of relationship between crack and seismic anisotropy
allowed to use seismic methods for determining orientation of fracture systems and the crack density in sites where the rocks are inaccessible to direct observation.
and Fountain, D.M.: 1993, Seismic anisotropy
of metapelites from the Ivrea-Verbano zone and Serie dei Laghi (nothern Italy).--Phys.