selective service


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selective service,

in U.S. history, term for conscriptionconscription,
compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samurai in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient Greece and Rome,
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.

Conscription was established (1863) in the U.S. Civil War, but proved unpopular (see draft riotsdraft riots,
in the American Civil War, mob action to protest unfair Union conscription. The Union Conscription Act of Mar. 3, 1863, provided that all able-bodied males between the ages of 20 and 45 were liable to military service, but a drafted man who furnished an acceptable
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). The law authorized release from service to anyone who furnished a substitute and, at first, to those who paid $300. General conscription was reintroduced in World War I with the Selective Service Act of 1917. All men from 21 to 30 years of age (later extended 18 to 45), inclusive, had to register. Exemptions from service were granted to men who had dependent families, indispensable duties at home, or physical disabilities. Conscientious objectorconscientious objector,
person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of Friends (Quakers), the
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 status was granted to members of pacifist religious organizations, but they had to perform alternative service. Other war objectors were imprisoned, where several died. By the end of World War I about 2,800,000 men had been inducted.

The United States first adopted peacetime conscription with the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940. The act provided that not more than 900,000 men were to be in training at any one time, and it limited service to 12 months—later (1941) extended to 18 months. After the United States entered World War II, a new selective service act made men between 18 and 45 liable for military service and required all men between 18 and 65 to register. The terminal point of service was extended to six months after the war. From 1940 until 1947—when the wartime selective service act expired after extensions by Congress—over 10,000,000 men were inducted. A new selective service act was passed in 1948 that required all men between 18 and 26 to register and that made men from 19 to 26 liable for induction for 21 months' service, which would be followed by 5 years of reserve duty.

When the Korean War broke out, the 1948 law was replaced (1951) by the Universal Military Training and Service Act. The length of service was extended to 24 months, and the minimum age for induction was reduced to 18 1-2 years. The main purpose of the Reserve Forces Act of 1955 was to strengthen the reserve forces and the National Guard. It required six years of duty, including both reserve and active duty. The Military Selective Service Act of 1967 required all men between the ages of 18 and 26 to register for service. The regular exemptions along with educational deferments were granted. These loopholes and other technicalities tended to discriminate against working-class and poor men, and thus a higher percentage from these groups were drafted.

Due to this perceived discrimination by class and also because of the great unpopularity of the Vietnam War, conscription became a major social issue. There were numerous demonstrations at draft boards and induction centers. Many young men evaded the draft through technicalities or fraud; thousands fled the country or went to prison. In 1973 conscription was abolished in favor of an all-volunteer army. President Gerald R. FordFord, Gerald Rudolph,
1913–2006, 38th president of the United States (1974–77), b. Omaha, Nebr. He was originally named Leslie Lynch King, Jr., but his parents were divorced when he was two, and when his mother remarried he assumed the name of his stepfather.
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 granted clemency to many draft resisters in 1974, and President Jimmy Carter granted amnesty to draft resisters in 1977. In 1980, Congress reinstituted draft registration for men 18 to 25 years old. If there were to be a crisis, registered men would be inducted as determined by age and a random lottery.

References in periodicals archive ?
At his trial, he told the jury that he had done so as an act of "symbolic speech," hoping that "other people would re-evaluate their positions with Selective Service, with the armed forces, and re-evaluate their place in the culture of today." The case went all the way to the U.S.
When that happens, the department will depend on Selective Service to rapidly mobilize personnel.
Today, young men must register with the Selective Service on their 18th birthday and remain in a database throughout their 20s, just in case the government needs to reinstate the draft.
This petition is made to you in order to avoid injustice and unnecessary litigation in the courts which would be burdensome to both me and the Selective Service System.
Jane Fughs: "All Selective Service does is maintain a list of names.
The first contained "an official release" from the national headquarters of the Selective Service System concerning scientific and specialized personnel.
According to Krehbiel, as the longtime director of America's Selective Service system, Hershey served as the central architect in the development of alternative service in twentieth-century America, thus cementing the very concept of service into the U.S.
He also conducted letter carrier route inspections, on special assignments, throughout Worcester County retiring in 1985.Pete served the town of Westborough in many capacities including Call Firefighter, Board of Fire Engineers, Planning Board, 250th Anniversary Committee, Conservation Committee, Delegate to Central MA, Regional Planning Commission, Municipal Sites and Facilities Committee, Trustees of Soldiers' Memorial, Veterans Advisory Committee, Election Official/Warden Precinct 1, WW II Commemoration Committee, Commonwealth of MA., Massachusetts Selective Service Board 162, recommended by Gov.
There were important differences between draft dodgers and other war resisters, as individuals and as groups, especially among those who actually evaded military conscription when they received a draft notice from the Selective Service. Those experiences and motivations might have differed significantly from those who left the country because they disagreed with their nation's foreign policy, and different yet from those who were drafted or deserted but who intended to return to their home country as soon as it was possible, and then there were the thousands who came to Canada with no intention of returning, regardless of an end to the draft or amnesty.
a Volkswagen on my way to the Selective Service. I want to go back
In this short note, we discuss the economic, institutional, and political factors explaining cross-state variation in selective service compliance laws in the United States.
Selective Service System this summer sent military draft registration orders to 14,000 Pennsylvania men born between 1893 and 1897.

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