Self-Fertilization

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Self-Fertilization

 

the merging of male and female sex cells belonging to a single bisexual individual (see HERMAPHRODITISM). Self-fertilization is rarely observed in nature. In the process of evolution, most organisms acquired adaptations that made self-fertilization impossible and ensured cross-fertilization. These adaptations increased the genetic variation of the off spring, promoting, in turn, the elaboration of new adaptations and the development of more viable offspring. Self-fertilization is sometimes observed in hydras, flatworms, certain annelids, mollusks, and fishes. Among plants it is observed in many algae, fungi, and flowering plants. In flowering plants self-fertilization is a result of self-pollination.

References in periodicals archive ?
For the self-fertilized group, 12 individuals randomly selected from the adult parents were placed individually in an 80-L bucket and allowed to spawn to produce self-fertilized larvae.
Egg number per clutch varies considerably between the two development modes, and preliminary results indicated that eggs per clutch also varied among mating types (unfertilized, self-fertilized, or paired).
The fact that DBGMF seeds occurred in offspring of self-fertilized LBGMF lines indicated that the 4E chromosome was transmitted through both female and male gametes.
We hypothesized that reduced resources may constrain the development of self-fertilized fruits more than outcrossed fruits and, therefore, that resource reduction will increase the proportion of outcrossed progeny.
In contrast, 51 animals produced gametes that had a self-fertilization rate of greater than 90%; of these, 16 were 100% self-fertilized.
The grass produces dimorphic seeds from terminal panicles of potentially outcrossed flowers and self-fertilized cleistogamous flowers in the lower leaf sheaths (cleistogenes) (Weatherwax 1928, Clay 1983, Cheplick and Clay 1989).
0] PHV119 and PHV122 were self-fertilized, and their progeny screened by PCR analysis for the presence of the bar gene, with both PHV119 and PHV122 transferring the foreign gene to the [T.
At anthesis, six plants of F497 were self-fertilized and six others were crossed with F252 as male.
Experimental designs used in this study to test the viability of self-fertilized offspring also provide information on relative gender success in test crosses.
Wang (1947), by studying embryological development of cross and self-fertilized kernels on the same ear, observed the same phenomenon, but with a high reciprocal or female effect, and showed that the advantage of cross fertilization is greater in the early stages.
It remains possible that, at that time, paired snails actually mainly self-fertilized, masking inbreeding depression.
5% of self-fertilized progeny would have unique phenotypes at the Pgi-2 locus.