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Related to self-raising flour: caster sugar, bicarbonate of soda


finely ground, usually sifted, meal of graingrain,
in agriculture, term referring to the caryopsis, or dry fruit, of a cereal grass. The term is also applied to the seedlike fruits of buckwheat and of certain other plants and is used collectively for any plant that bears such fruits.
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, such as wheat, rye, corn, rice, or buckwheat. Flour is also made from potatoes, peas, beans, peanuts, etc. Usually it refers to the finely ground and bolted (i.e., sifted through a fine sieve) flour of wheatwheat,
cereal plant of the genus Triticum of the family Poaceae (grass family), a major food and an important commodity on the world grain market. Wheat Varieties and Their Uses
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, which forms the largest proportion of all flour milled in the United States, Canada, and W Europe. Milletmillet,
common name for several species of grasses cultivated mainly for cereals in the Eastern Hemisphere and for forage and hay in North America. The principal varieties are the foxtail, pearl, and barnyard millets and the proso millet, called also broomcorn millet and hog
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 is ground in India, Russia, and China. Rye is much used for bread in N Europe, buckwheat in the Netherlands and Russia, and corn in the United States. Rice may be used for bread in combination with other grains richer in glutengluten,
mixture of proteins present in the cereal grains. The long molecules of gluten, insoluble in water, are strong and flexible and form many cross linkages. This gives flour its characteristic chewiness and permits breads and cakes to rise during baking as the gases within
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. Wheat and rye flour can be used in baking leavened bread, as they contain gluten in sufficient amount to retain the gas formed by the action of yeast. Corn flour, rich in fats and starches, is a favorite for making quick breads. Graham, or whole-wheat, flour contains the whole grain, unbolted. This flour will not keep long, as the germ contains fats and ferments that cause deterioration when exposed to the air. Wheat flour is separated into grades by milling. In the United States, patent flour, freed of the bran and most of the germ, is the highest grade; clear flour is the second grade; and red dog, a low-grade residue, is used mainly for animal feed. The composition of flour depends on the type of wheat and the milling processes; gluten is the chief protein, and starch the principal carbohydrate, although some sucrose, invert sugar, and dextrin may be present. On the market are prepared flours, such as the self-rising, which contains a leavening agent, and numerous cake, pancake, and pastry mixes requiring only the addition of water. Flour improves if stored from six to nine months under conditions permitting the enzyme action that gives better baking qualities. Good flour, rich in gluten, has a creamy color and adhesive quality. Bleaching, which is accomplished by the addition of chemicals to flour to improve its appearance and baking qualities, was begun about 1900. The bleaching of flour has been a controversial issue since its beginning, with charges that it destroys valuable nutrients or is injurious to health; some bleaching agents have been banned (e.g., nitrogen trichloride), but new ones have been introduced. Bleached flours must be so labeled.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a food product obtained by grinding the grain of various crops. Most often flour is made from wheat, but it may also be made from rye, barley, corn, oats, sorghum, buckwheat, soybeans, and peas. Flour is used for making bread and other baked goods, pastry, pasta products, and mixed feeds. In addition, it is mixed with other feeds and given to livestock.

The chemical composition, the nutritional value, and the technical qualities of flour depend on the type and quality of the grain, the particular type of milling, the yield (the percentage of flour in the total grain weight), and the grade of flour (see Table 1).

Table 1. Chemical composition of wheat flour (in percentage of dry weight)
Whole wheat..........1469.611.
Patent flour ..........1473.610.
First Clear ...........1472.911.

Whole wheat and low-grade flour contain vitamins B1, B2, PP, and E, while patent flour and first clear have virtually no vitamins. Flour also contains various enzymes (proteinase, beta-amylase, alpha-amylase, catalase, lipase), which greatly affect the process of bread-making and the quality of the bread. Rye flour is most often produced as a one-grade, or straight-grade, flour. Also produced are a straight-grade 96 percent wheat-rye flour (70 percent wheat and 30 percent rye) and a straight-grade 95 percent rye-wheat flour (60 percent rye and 40 percent wheat). The yield and the grade determine the flour’s color, particle size, and ash content; in wheat flour, they also determine the quality and quantity of the crude gluten. Good-quality flour has a slight floury aroma and a fresh taste.

When flour is stored, its quality can alter. During the first storage period (up to one month) and under conditions of increased temperature (20°-30°C), maturing occurs (an improvement in baking properties) as a result of fat hydrolysis and oxidation processes. With protracted storage, the quality of the flour deteriorates. The moisture content of flour should be no higher than 15 percent. Flour with higher moisture content turns sour, becomes moldy, and may self-heat; flour with lower moisture content (9–13 percent) rapidly turns bitter.

Flour must not be contaminated with granary pests. It should contain no more than 3 percent sprouted seed and 0.05 percent harmful impurities. Metal impurities (up to 3 mg/kg of flour) are permitted only in the form of round dustlike particles. The color, ash content, and particle size of the flour are also control indicators for the production process and for the correct extraction of the various grain parts. To obtain high-quality products, wheat flour, depending on its grade and yield, should contan at least 20–30 percent crude gluten of the first or second group. To determine the technical qualities of wheat flour, the elasticity of the dough during kneading and rising is recorded. The qualities of rye flour are determined on an amylograph, which indicates the viscosity of the flour paste and, thereby, the amylolytic activity of the flour and the degree of starch hydrolysis. The baking properties of a particular flour may be determined from experimental bakes using the same recipe. (See.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(food engineering)
A powdery meal obtained by milling wheat and other cereal grains or dry food products such as potato or banana.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
250g/9oz self-raising flour sifted with a pinch of salt + a little extra
Ingredients 100ml rapeseed oil 100ml natural yogurt 50ml runny honey 2 eggs 1 tsp vanilla extract 200g self-raising flour 1 tsp bicarbonate of soda 11/2 tsp ground mixed spice 1 apple, grated 1 carrot, grated 50g sultanas, raisins, chopped nuts or seeds (optional) Method Heat oven to 180C/160C fan/gas 4 and line a muffin tin with nine cases (alternatively, use squares of baking parchment).
Put 100g wholemeal self-raising flour, a pinch of salt, 1/4 tsp ground mixed spice, 20g light muscovado sugar, 1 large egg, 4 tbsp low fat plain yoghurt and 100ml milk into a large mixing bowl and use a hand whisk or fork to mix everything together thoroughly.
INGREDIENTS: 385g Sainsbury's mixed dried fruit 80g Sainsbury's ready-to-eat dried figs, roughly chopped 75g Sainsbury's glace cherries, roughly chopped 100ml basics brandy 1 small cooking apple, peeled cored and grated 1 small orange, zest and juice 100g shredded suet 3 medium British free-range Woodland eggs by Sainsbury's, beaten 100g Sainsbury's ground almonds 200g soft muscovado sugar 140g self-raising flour 20g Sainsbury's almonds, halved 1 tsp ground mixed spice by Sainsbury's 1/2 tsp ground cinnamon by Sainsbury's Red currants to decorate METHOD: 1.
INGREDIENTS Oil, for spraying 175g self-raising flour 2tsp baking powder 1/2tsp bicarbonate of soda 1tsp grated nutmeg 75g soft light brown sugar 2 eggs 3 bananas (about 250g), mashed 100g butter, melted 1tsp vanilla extract 100g pineapple, finely diced METHOD 1.
SERVE HOT WITH DOUBLE CREAM OR ICE CREAM SERVES SIX INGREDIENTS | 100g melted butter, plus extra for greasing | 3 eggs | 175ml milk | 250g self-raising flour | 50g cocoa powder | 1tsp baking powder | 150g light brown soft sugar | 100g dark chocolate drops (70 per cent cocoa solids) or dark chocolate, finely chopped | 100g milk chocolate drops or milk chocolate, finely chopped into 5mm dice FOR THE SAUCE | 300ml water | 200g light brown soft sugar | 40g cocoa powder METHOD 1 Preheat the oven to 180C/Gas 4 and butter a 2-litre ovenproof dish.
GRANNY BOYD'S BISCUITS INGREDIENTS (Makes 24 biscuits) 300g self-raising flour 30g cocoa powder 250g unsalted butter (room temperature) 125g caster sugar METHOD 1.
INGREDIENTS Serves 4 FRITTERS 2 x Bunches spring onions, thinly sliced 2tsp Smoked paprika 100g Self-raising flour 100g Plain flour 4 x Eggs beaten 160ml Milk 400g Sweetcorn Fresh chopped coriander 1 x Chopped red chilli Good pinch baking powder Salt to taste Oil for frying FOR PLATING UP 12 large scallops Diced cooked golden beetroot Hummus Chickpea tossed in vinaigrette Crumbled feta METHOD Sift the flours and baking powder in to a large bowl then beat in the eggs and milk to form a thick batter.
BANANABREAD 125g soft butter 250g caster sugar 3 or 4 over-ripe bananas 2 large eggs Vi tsp vanilla extract 250g plain flour (you can use self-raising flour if you prefer, just omit the baking powder) 3 tsp baking powder 1Preheat your oven to 160C (150C fan or gas mark 3), remembering to grease and line your cake tin.
"I've no regrets about doing the Bake Off and am pleased John won because he will use die tide to do great things in die world of baking, as will Brendan." Here and next week James will JAMES' EASY SPONGECAKE I , 2 eggs , lOOg caster sugar lOOg baking margarine 110g self-raising flour (make sure it's in date) f.
100g (4oz) unsalted butter, softened 100g (4oz) caster sugar 2 eggs 25g (1oz) cocoa powder 150g (51/2oz) self-raising flour 4 tbsp full-fat milk 75g (3oz) dark chocolate, chopped Icing sugar, to dust 1.
50g self-raising flour 125g shredded suet 1/2 tsp salt 200ml cold water 3 tbsp parsley