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1. an individual's consciousness of his own identity or being
2. Philosophy that which is essential to an individual, esp the mind or soul in Cartesian metaphysics; the ego
3. a bird, animal. etc., that is a single colour throughout, esp a self-coloured pigeon


a mental construction of the person, by the person, but inevitably formed from social experience. Thus the person sees him/herself reflected by others, in their reactions, and these are interpreted through the lattice of self-perception. MEAD (1934) is particularly associated with this idea of the self as being a social construction; self cannot exist without society – the self is where knowledge resides, but the knowledge is about society, which surrounds it. Theorists such as Mead and COOLEY (see SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM, LOOKING-GLASS SELF) and some sociologists also emphasize the REFLEXIVITY and creativity possessed by social actors. This view of the self and self-identity contrasts sharply with conceptions of DECENTRED SELF recently to the fore within POSTSTRUCTURALISM (e.g. LACAN).

The 'self also receives varied formulation within PSYCHOLOGY and PSYCHOANALYSIS (see EGO-PSYCHOLOGY, OBJECT RELATIONS SCHOOL, LACAN).

The concept of self is particularly important to developmental and HUMANISTIC psychologists. Humanistic theorists (e.g. MASLOW, 1954) see the goal of the individual as SELF-ACTUALIZATION. (See also SOCIAL IDENTITY, PERSONALITY).



in philosophy, the expression of the unity and identity of individual self-consciousness. The self is one of the basic structures of the individual personality as related to other individual personalities—for example, “you” or “we.” It is the central category in various systems of idealist philosophy, such as that of J. G. Fichte.

What does it mean when you dream about yourself?

To encounter one’s self in a dream indicates that one has come face to face with issues and needs that can no longer be ignored.


A small, dynamically typed object-oriented language, based purely on prototypes and delegation. Self was developed by the Self Group at Sun Microsystems Laboratories, Inc. and Stanford University. It is an experimental exploratory programming language.

Release 2.0 introduces full source-level debugging of optimised code, adaptive optimisation to shorten compile pauses, lightweight threads within Self, support for dynamically linking foreign functions, changing programs within Self and the ability to run the experimental Self graphical browser under OpenWindows. Designed for expressive power and malleability, Self combines a pure, prototype-based object model with uniform access to state and behaviour. Unlike other languages, Self allows objects to inherit state and to change their patterns of inheritance dynamically. Self's customising compiler can generate very efficient code compared to other dynamically-typed object-oriented languages.

Version: 3.0 runs on Sun-3 (no optimiser) and Sun-4.

["Self: The Power of Simplicity", David Ungar <> et al, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):227-242, OOPSLA '87, Dec 1987].
References in periodicals archive ?
Quite selfishly [partnering with him] will allow me to continue practicing law at a [steady] pace and give him a future he deserves.
Leo is selfishly ambitious and has a drinking problem.
I think we selfishly think such tactical missions belong exclusively to our branch, or the Marines.
The younger of the two brothers selfishly asks his father for his inheritance, effectively declaring his father dead, and then runs off and squanders the money.
And, selfishly, zero-percent financing helped ns improve our U.
Given the growing body of knowledge about animal intelligence, culture and social systems, the right choice here is to not use power selfishly simply because we can.
All six kids spoke of feeling guilty when they fought with their siblings or behaved selfishly.
One can find self-preservation, for example, in Leibniz's monads, compelled to interrelate yet ontologically distinct and tending to preserve this distinctness; and one can find self-preservation in Hobbes' human beings, who are led to the social contract defensively -- all wish selfishly and "arelationally" to preserve themselves, but the best way to do this is by existing in relation to one another, in society.
Although Edna could be selfishly free-spirited and indulgently infantile, she was also a woman with a cross to bear--namely, the responsibility of her family's well-being.
This story centers on Marrisa Jenkins, a successful business manager who selfishly chooses to date only married men.
WE HAVE all been frustrated by the number of meetings lost to the weather this winter, but I'm selfishly half-hoping for a couple more blank days on Monday and Tuesday, as I'll be sitting out my first whip ban in a long while.