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1. an individual's consciousness of his own identity or being
2. Philosophy that which is essential to an individual, esp the mind or soul in Cartesian metaphysics; the ego
3. a bird, animal. etc., that is a single colour throughout, esp a self-coloured pigeon


a mental construction of the person, by the person, but inevitably formed from social experience. Thus the person sees him/herself reflected by others, in their reactions, and these are interpreted through the lattice of self-perception. MEAD (1934) is particularly associated with this idea of the self as being a social construction; self cannot exist without society – the self is where knowledge resides, but the knowledge is about society, which surrounds it. Theorists such as Mead and COOLEY (see SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM, LOOKING-GLASS SELF) and some sociologists also emphasize the REFLEXIVITY and creativity possessed by social actors. This view of the self and self-identity contrasts sharply with conceptions of DECENTRED SELF recently to the fore within POSTSTRUCTURALISM (e.g. LACAN).

The 'self also receives varied formulation within PSYCHOLOGY and PSYCHOANALYSIS (see EGO-PSYCHOLOGY, OBJECT RELATIONS SCHOOL, LACAN).

The concept of self is particularly important to developmental and HUMANISTIC psychologists. Humanistic theorists (e.g. MASLOW, 1954) see the goal of the individual as SELF-ACTUALIZATION. (See also SOCIAL IDENTITY, PERSONALITY).



in philosophy, the expression of the unity and identity of individual self-consciousness. The self is one of the basic structures of the individual personality as related to other individual personalities—for example, “you” or “we.” It is the central category in various systems of idealist philosophy, such as that of J. G. Fichte.

What does it mean when you dream about yourself?

To encounter one’s self in a dream indicates that one has come face to face with issues and needs that can no longer be ignored.


A small, dynamically typed object-oriented language, based purely on prototypes and delegation. Self was developed by the Self Group at Sun Microsystems Laboratories, Inc. and Stanford University. It is an experimental exploratory programming language.

Release 2.0 introduces full source-level debugging of optimised code, adaptive optimisation to shorten compile pauses, lightweight threads within Self, support for dynamically linking foreign functions, changing programs within Self and the ability to run the experimental Self graphical browser under OpenWindows. Designed for expressive power and malleability, Self combines a pure, prototype-based object model with uniform access to state and behaviour. Unlike other languages, Self allows objects to inherit state and to change their patterns of inheritance dynamically. Self's customising compiler can generate very efficient code compared to other dynamically-typed object-oriented languages.

Version: 3.0 runs on Sun-3 (no optimiser) and Sun-4.

["Self: The Power of Simplicity", David Ungar <> et al, SIGPLAN Notices 22(12):227-242, OOPSLA '87, Dec 1987].
References in periodicals archive ?
If the sense of belonging and identity provided by small groups is essential to human functioning, then "clique selfishness" may well be more powerful than even the most rabid individual self-interest, Brewer contends.
In the Mim mechanism, there are three modules: selfishness, energy and transaction.
'Yet, they are accusing the Waziri, who has shown commitment to honouring these heroes, of selfishness.
Researchers have looked at how selfishness relates to income and fertility.
little bit of him as he penalty, but a bit of Neville "There's a little bit of authority with him as he took the penalty, but there's also a bit of selfishness - as he looked like he wanted to be the hero.
The main difference between selfishness and self-nurturing is the belief in lack vs abundance and flow.
For selfishness, average economic group of the respondents has highest mean scores (M=3.16, SD=.87) followed by low economic group (M=2.95, SD=.98) and higher economic group (M=2.79, SD=.86).
However our progress has been impeded by the selfishness of a certain individual or individuals who have decided to dump this huge pile of waste.
Selfishness is the root of so much crime, so much inequality and so much anger.
The impact of node selfishness on MANETs has been studied in it is shown that when no selfishness prevention mechanism is present, the packet delivery rates become seriously degraded, from a rate of 80 percent when the selfish node ratio is 0, to 30 percent when the selfish node ratio is 50 percent.
Nor is the point to demonstrate your selfishness to others through some form of egoistic "virtue signaling" (that would be bizarrely second-handed).
NNA - Maronite Patriarch, Cardinal Bechara Boutros Rahi, urged on Sunday politicians to give up their selfishness and interests and to save the country.