Ten (47.6%) patients had myofascial spasm (trigger points) located in the trapezius, levator scapulae, splenius capitiis, semispinalis
, and temporalis muscles.
Several studies have come up with different external landmarks for the transverse sinus -the point of insertion of semispinalis
capitis muscle, the superior nuchal line (SNL) etc.
D; spinous process E; spinalis et semispinalis
The primary focus should be the paraspinal musculature--the erector spinae and transversospinalis groups--but the transversospinalis musculature (rotatores, multifidus, semispinalis
) in the laminar groove of the spine should be especially focused on.
This mechanism can activate trigger points in the suboccipital muscles and the semispinalis
muscle of the head and neck.
The following muscle fascicles were involved in this spine model: 5 transversus, 3 spinalis, 1 rectus abdominis (RA), 58 erector spinae (ES), 38 lumbar multifidus, 24 thoracic multifidus, 12 oblique externus, 12 oblique internus, 22 psoas major, 10 quadratus lumborum, and 18 semispinalis
. All the muscles fascicles were solved as force component in the redundant model system and could only exert tensile force [33, 36, 37].
No entrapment of the GON was found in its course in the trapezius or semispinalis
ROIs were drawn on the trapezius muscle at C7-T1 levels bilaterally, the splenius muscles, the semispinalis
muscles, the elevator scapular muscles, and the trapezius muscles at C6-C7 levels bilaterally.
The aim of this narrative review was to determine, based on existing literature, normal and abnormal imaging parameters of paraspinal muscles (transversospinales, rotators, multifidus, and semispinalis
) and the erector spinae (iliocostalis, longissimus, and spinalis) and their association with spinal degenerative features (disc degeneration, facet joint osteoarthritis, etc.) and LBP.
The cervical segment is supported by the longus colli muscle anteriorly and the semispinalis
cervicis and cervical multifidus muscles posteriorly.
Como una forma practica de evaluar el AOL, se propuso la medicion del area del ojo del lomo total (AOLT), que incluye ademas del musculo Longissimus thoracis, los musculos spinalis et semispinalis
thorasis, multifidus thoracis, levator costae y Longissimus dorsi .
Less invasive surgery, reconstruction of the extensor musculature, avoiding detachment of the semispinalis
cervical muscles, and early removal of external immobilization have been shown to be effective in preventing axial pain after these procedures.