"Today the skin is just reducing the impact of the exterior climate towards the interior climate conditions, by acting mainly as a separation layer
. In the future, the building skin can also minimise the environmental impacts of the urban ambient areas by active and passive design measures and products."
We also had to create a l0nm separation layer
that was free of 'pinholes' and was fully electronically insulating, but still let lithium ions diffuse through.
All these composite membranes show a relatively thin separation layer
of 23-34 pm.
By applying machine learning methodology, the separation layer
can be estimated more accurately.
They prepare a separation layer
(abscission) at the base of the leaf that will cut off the flow of nutrients and food between the leaf and the tree.
The low frequency range of the pressure spectrum magnitude indicates a separation layer
thickness of [delta] = 120 mm with [C.sub.M] = 0.34%.
Comparing pervaporation characteristics of asymmetric to symmetric membranes, asymmetric membranes combine a higher permeation rate, due to the very thin separation layer
, and a good mechanical resistance provided by the porous support (Angelo et al, 2015).
asphalt separation layer
. The existing four-lane, divided primary highway is an 8-in.-thick CRCP placed over a 6-in.
An important feature of UPTFE's modifying action is formation on the friction surface a separation layer
with high resistance to processes of the redeformation, which will reduce wear at dry friction.
The basic scheme of this structure is depicted in figure 1a where: z--is the drainage norm, h--is the hydraulic head, [K.sub.1], [K.sub.2]--are the hydraulic conductivities of the two soil layers, [D.sub.0]--is the distance between the drain separation layer
( the distance corresponds to the radial flow), [D.sub.1] = [D.sub.0] + 0,5 x h--is the water level above the drain (the distance corresponds to the horizontal flow in [K.sub.1] layer), [D.sub.2]--is the thickness of the layer below the drain, characterized by the hydraulic conductivity [K.sub.2], [D.sub.v] = h - the vertical distance of the vertical flow, [d.sub.0] - is the diameter of the drain tube and L--is the drain distance.
A high relative yielding to shear--low shear rigidity--of the inserted separation layer
, as compared to the rigidity of the vault structure and the pavement itself, limits their mutual interaction and load transfer via shear forces, or via forced deformation and strain.