A rise in the number of oncological research projects to elucidate tumorigenesis and the underlying mechanisms, consequently raising the demand for serial sampling
, diagnosis, and therapeutic manipulation, is a growth rendering driver of this market.
These patients agreed to CSF collection by lumbar puncture at baseline, and some agreed to serial sampling
Design features facilitate high-throughput and serial sampling
as fluid draws from live hosts or tubes, and the ability to collect precise micro-samples with limited training and no specialized lab equipment.
In some previous studies serial sampling
and measurement of proteins during the course of myocardial infarction indicated that the highest serum amyloid A protein values were observed, on average, 67 hours after the onset of chest pain.
No more than 4-6% of blood volume was collected during the serial sampling
to minimize potential physiological effects associated with blood volume depletion.
We propose, however, that early serial sampling
is required to optimize risk stratification.
When patients experience an MI, the first rise in CK-MB occurs within 4-6 hours after the onset of symptoms; but for diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity, serial sampling over a period of 8-12 hours is required.
Optimal clinical utilization requires serial sampling performed at the time of presentation and between 2-6 hours later.
For diagnosis of MI, serial sampling is necessary unless results of the first measurement exceed the decision point.
We support the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry's guidelines regarding the necessity of serial sampling
of several cardiac markers at defined time intervals to most rapidly and accurately rule in or rule out acute coronary syndromes (2).
It should be noted that some of these studies use admission serum values when assessing outcomes, whereas others use peak serum values after serial sampling of cardiac markers.
Clinical sensitivities and specificities (with 95% CIs) are shown in Table 1 for serial samplings for all patients.