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see bloodblood,
fluid pumped by the heart that circulates throughout the body via the arteries, veins, and capillaries (see circulatory system; heart). An adult male of average size normally has about 6 quarts (5.6 liters) of blood.
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The liquid portion that remains when blood is allowed to clot spontaneously and is then centrifuged to remove the blood cells and clotting elements. It has approximately the same volume (55%) as plasma and differs from it only by the absence of fibrinogen. See Fibrinogen

Blood serum contains 6–8% solids, including macromolecules such as albumin, antibodies and other globulins, and enzymes; peptide and lipid-based hormones; and cytokines; as well as certain nutritive organic materials in small amounts, such as amino acids, glucose, and fats. Somewhat less than 1% of the serum consists of inorganic substances. Small amounts of respiratory gases are dissolved in the serum, as is the gas nitric oxide, which serves as a chemical messenger and vasodilator. Small amounts of waste material are also present. These substances, along with other small molecules which are not bound to blood proteins, are filtered out as blood flows through the kidney. See Blood, Kidney

Certain types of sera, both human and animals, are used in clinical medicine. Immune serum and hyperimmune serum either are developed by naturally occurring disease or are deliberately prepared by repeated injection of antigens to increase antibody titer for either diagnostic tests or the treatment of active disease. These sera are referred to as antisera, since they have a specific antagonistic action against specific antigens. See Antibody, Antigen, Biologicals, Immunity

By custom, the clear portion of any liquid material of animal origin separated from its solid or cellular elements is also referred to as sera. These fluids are more properly referred to as effusions. See Serology


The liquid portion that remains when blood clots spontaneously and the formed and clotting elements are removed by centrifugation; it differs from plasma by the absence of fibrinogen.


1. See blood serum
2. antitoxin obtained from the blood serum of immunized animals
3. Physiol zoology clear watery fluid, esp that exuded by serous membranes
References in periodicals archive ?
Limongelli, "Serum enzyme monitoring in sports medicine," Clinics in Sports Medicine, vol.
We really ignore the possible role of serum enzymes in the intermediary metabolism, as well as whether these actively catalytic proteins can indeed use substrates in the serum blood fraction.
As ethanol-induced pancreatitis presents with lower serum enzyme elevations compared with gallstone pancreatitis, the sensitivity of these enzymes for AP will be negatively affected, especially when a cut-off level of three times the ULN is used.
The time-dependent studies revealed that the healing process for serum enzymes induced by SLN and GLN is directly proportional to the time course of treatment and that the herbs achieve an almost complete healing after six weeks of continuous administration.
Keywords: Arsenic; Broiler chicks; Toxico-pathological effects; Serum enzymes; Vitamin C
Fowler, W., Et Al., 1962, Changes In Serum Enzyme Levels After Exercise In Trained And Untrained Subjects.
Liver is the largest metabolic organ synthesizing various enzymes and therefore, alterations in serum enzyme levels indicate reproductive disorders of hormonal origin.
It is concluded that hepatic dysfunction and increased levels of serum enzymes is a common characteristic of P.
Serum enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, ALP) were determined using spectrophotometric method as described [7].
Serum enzymes such as amylase and lipase lack sufficient specificity or sensitivity to serve as sole markers for ACR (5), and recurrent hypoglycemia is a late consequence of graft rejection (6).