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(1) A form of nonproductive labor and, in this sense, a socioeconomic relationship expressing the consumption of income.

(2) A purposeful activity existing in the form of a useful effect of labor.

As a form of nonproductive labor, services represent a relationship arising from the useful effect of labor that is consumed as an activity. Thus, a tailor renders a material service in that he makes clothes. It is precisely the transformation of material into clothes that is the service of the tailor; the tailor’s activity is embodied in the clothes. As a result of this activity, economic relations arise that are associated with the consumption of income of those people who use the tailor’s labor. The same kind of economic relations are seen when a tutor is engaged for the instruction of children. But in contrast to the activity of the tailor, the activity of the tutor is not embodied in an object, existing instead as a useful effect of labor that is consumed in the very process of labor, that is, during the process of teaching. As a form of nonproductive labor, services do not express specific relations of one or another method of production. For example, under both capitalism and socialism this form of labor expresses relations whereby labor is exchanged for income. The economic relations characterizing services do not realize the objective of a method of production; therefore, there are relations of nonproductive labor.

Services as special types of use-values, as nonmaterial forms of labor, are not counted in the national income. This applies to the work of, for example, teachers, doctors, actors, and musicians. However, by producing objects of consumption with their labor, these people increase the overall consumption of society and help to create society’s personal consumption fund. Although they have no value, services may have a price, which allows them to be counted in society’s personal consumption fund.


Sfera obsluzhivaniia pri sotsializme. Edited by E. I. Kapustin. Moscow, 1968.
Marksistsko-leninskaia teoriia stoimosti. Moscow, 1971.
SShA: sfera using v ekonomike. Moscow, 1971.
Solodkov, M. V., and L. S. Krylov. Metodologiia issledovaniia proizvoditel’nogo truda pri kapitalizme. Moscow, 1974.


building services

The utilities and services supplied and distributed within a building generally related to the building environment, including: heating, air-conditioning, lighting, water supply services, drainage services, electrical supply, gas supply, fire protection, and security protection.
References in classic literature ?
says she; 'don't I tell you that you shall not go to service till your are bigger?
all I understood by being a gentlewoman was to be able to work for myself, and get enough to keep me without that terrible bugbear going to service, whereas they meant to live great, rich and high, and I know not what.
No person held to Service or Labor in one State, under the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or Labor, But shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom such Service or Labor may be due.
Hartman and I agreed that it was useless to report ourselves to the local chiefs of the secret service.
He was very angry, and was cursing the whole secret service.
Such was the plunging progress of the Bell Companies in this period of expansion, that by 1905 they had swept past all European countries combined, not only in the quality of the service but in the actual number of telephones in use.
By such and many other allurements a larger idea of telephone service was given to the public mind; until in 1909 at least eighteen thousand New York-Chicago conversa- tions were held, and the revenue from strictly long-distance messages was twenty-two thousand dollars a day.
The distance which many of the representatives will be obliged to travel, and the arrangements rendered necessary by that circumstance, might be much more serious objections with fit men to this service, if limited to a single year, than if extended to two years.
His foibles - faults if you like - will never be dwelt upon in any memorandum of mine," he declares, and goes on - "he whose splendid and matchless achievements will be remembered with admiration while there is gratitude in the hearts of Britons, or while a ship floats upon the ocean; he whose example on the breaking out of the war gave so chivalrous an impulse to the younger men of the service that all rushed into rivalry of daring which disdained every warning of prudence, and led to acts of heroic enterprise which tended greatly to exalt the glory of our nation.
Monsieur de Comminges," said Athos, "I have been a soldier all my life and I know the force of orders; but outside your orders there is a service you can render me.
Though the prayer was unintelligible to the Indians, yet, as they knew what the nature of the service was, Mr.
Athos, on his part, had a valet whom he had trained in his service in a thoroughly peculiar fashion, and who was named Grimaud.

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