settlement house

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settlement house,

neighborhood welfare institution generally in an urban slum area, where trained workers endeavor to improve social conditions, particularly by providing community services and promoting neighborly cooperation. The idea was developed in mid-19th-century England when such social thinkers as Thomas Hill GreenGreen, Thomas Hill,
1836–82, English idealist philosopher. Educated at Oxford, he was associated with the university all his life. He was professor of moral philosophy there from 1878 until his death.
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, John RuskinRuskin, John,
1819–1900, English critic and social theorist. During the mid-19th cent. Ruskin was the virtual dictator of artistic opinion in England, but Ruskin's reputation declined after his death, and he has been treated harshly by 20th-century critics.
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, and Arnold ToynbeeToynbee, Arnold
, 1852–83, English economic historian, philosopher, and reformer. After his graduation in 1878 he was a tutor at Balliol College, Oxford, and was active in reform work outside the university, particularly among the London poor.
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 (1852–83) urged university students to settle in poor neighborhoods, where they could study and work to better local conditions. The pioneer establishment was Toynbee Hall, founded in 1884 in London under the leadership of Samuel Augustus BarnettBarnett, Samuel Augustus
, 1844–1913, English clergyman and social worker. As vicar of St. Jude's, Whitechapel, in the slums of London, he pioneered in the social settlement movement.
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. Before long, similar houses were founded in many cities of Great Britain, the United States, and continental Europe. Some of the more famous settlement houses in the United States have been Hull House and Chicago Commons, Chicago; South End House, Boston; and the University Settlement, Henry Street Settlement, and Greenwich House, New York City. Settlements serve as community, education, and recreation centers, particularly in densely populated immigrant neighborhoods. Sometimes known as social settlements, they are also called neighborhood houses, neighborhood centers, or community centers. The settlement house differs from other social welfare agencies; the latter provide specific services, while the former is aimed at improving neighborhood life as a whole. Its role has gradually altered as some of its varied functions have been assumed by state and municipal authorities and by other organizations. Kindergartens, formerly an important adjunct of the settlement house, are now operated by the public schools; municipal health departments have taken over its clinical services; and labor unions now sponsor educational and recreational activities for workers. The early leaders of settlement houses in the United States met from time to time and in 1911 founded the National Federation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers; Jane AddamsAddams, Jane,
1860–1935, American social worker, b. Cedarville, Ill., grad. Rockford College, 1881. In 1889, with Ellen Gates Starr, she founded Hull House in Chicago, one of the first social settlements in the United States (see settlement house).
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 served as the first president. In 1926 the International Federation of Settlements and Neighbourhood Centres was established to coordinate community work on an international level.


See L. Pacey, ed., Readings in the Development of Settlement Work (1951); A. Hillman, Neighborhood Centers Today (1960); A. F. Davis, Spearheads for Reform (1967, repr. 1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
"Over the years I think settlement houses have evolved, but they retained this focus on building community," Charles House board chairwoman Lydia Fernandez says.
For example, American bishops were slow to approve settlement house ministries, parish priests accused the sisters of draining money from their parishioners, the sisters were accused of "unpedagogical teaching" (pp.
plays in settlement houses was surely a reflection of the public
Settlement houses were often located in white immigrant neighborhoods that, while segregated, bordered on areas inhabited by African Americans.
A single European market in the shares of the region's biggest companies came a step nearer yesterday with a plan to merge the international securities trading settlement house Euroclear and its British counterpart Crest.
Jane Addams organized the first settlement house in Chicago, stimulating the development of the profession of social work.
Another compelling example of efforts to move nonclinical practice away from the therapeutic modality can be found in the community-building work of some of New York City's settlement houses. Because of their long and entwined history with the profession of social work (Crocker & Lasch-Quinn, 1997; Taylor, 1928), settlement houses are a particularly intriguing and potentially powerful vehicle for examining how the profession today can realign itself with its original mission.
Born in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1910, Sokolow grew up on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, where she pursued courses in various settlement houses. At one, the Neighborhood Playhouse, she encountered the two people who most influenced her artistic career.
As hospitals, parochial schools, orphanages, settlement houses, industrial schools, and remedial institutions grew in number and effectiveness, Catholics found that public service also carried political clout.
Instead of limiting our history to the overly procedural concerns of municipal reformers (most of them men) like those associated with the New York Bureau of Municipal Research, we should include the accomplishments of social reformers (most of them women) associated with settlement houses.
Frances Clarke Sayers (1972) writes of Moore: "She went where the children were: to the schools, the settlement houses, and the streets - New York as well as Brooklyn, the area of her investigation" (p.