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Films the position of the camera, microphones, and performers at the beginning of a scene
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


The ratio between the reference black level and the reference white level in television, both measured from the blanking level; usually expressed as a percentage.
(industrial engineering)
The preparation of a facility or a machine for a specific work method, activity, or process.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

BIOS setup

A program used to edit hardware settings in the BIOS of a PC. On earlier PCs, users had to change a setting when a new drive was added, but auto-detect features were later added. Although some settings are quite arcane and modified only by experienced technicians, users sometimes may need to make a change, such as the boot order of the PC (see first boot sequence).

From CMOS to Flash
The BIOS setup has also been called the "CMOS setup" or "CMOS RAM," because settings were initially held in a battery-backed CMOS memory circuit. Subsequently, BIOS settings were stored in non-volatile flash memory.

Accessed at Startup
The BIOS setup is accessed at startup. Soon after a PC is turned on, a short screen message typically passes by very quickly indicating which key to press (usually Esc, F1, F12 or Del). See BIOS, hard disk configuration, BIOS Upgrades and CMOS.

install program

Also called a "setup program" or "installer," it is software that prepares an application (software package) to run in the computer. Unless the application is a single function utility program, it is made up of many individual files that are often stored in several levels of folders in the user's computer. In some cases, hundreds and even thousands of files are part of an application.

To save space, the application files are compressed into one or more "archived" files. If the installation comes on a CD or DVD, there is room on the disc for multiple files. When coming from the Web, the install program creation system compresses the files and packages them into a single executable program so that there is only one file to download. Another approach on the Web for very large applications is to download a program that subsequently downloads multiple files, all of which happens automatically.

Whether from the Web or a physical medium, users run the install program to decompress the files and save them in a specific folder hierarchy on their hard disks. In the Windows environment, the install program often makes entries into the Windows Registry, which is a database of configuration data (see Registry).

Like a Self-Extracting Archive
A single-file install program is similar to a self-extracting archive, which is a collection of compressed files packaged as an executable program. When a self-extracting archive is run, it decompresses the files and creates the folders; however, an install program does that and more. For example, it can check the computer's configuration and, based on the results, install different files or create folders in different locations. It can also offer the user customization options. In addition, it is customary for the install program to include an uninstall program in the application folder so that the entire application can be easily removed (see uninstall).

Installation Packaging Systems
The developer has several choices in installation methods. There are free and paid installation packaging systems that perform the compression and creation of the install program that the user runs. They offer the developer either a selection of configuration dialogs, or a scripting language that requires actions to be programmed using an "installer source code," or both methods may be available in the same package.

In the Linux world, packaging systems differ greatly from the Mac and windows world (see package manager).

Also for Hardware
Install programs are also used to attach a new peripheral device to the computer. The install program adds the device's software driver to the operating system. If a controller card was plugged into the computer, the install program may set parameters in an updatable memory (flash memory, EEPROM, etc.) on the board itself. See silent install, unattended install, uninstall, how to install a program and BIOS setup.

Install Files and Folders
The primary purpose of an install program is to create a group of files and folders on the user's computer. In this Windows example, SetupABC.exe is a single file suitable for downloading from the Web.
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References in periodicals archive ?
"We had hoped that the caretaker setup would conduct transparent elections," he said.
be setups on beats 2 and 4 to setup the hits on the "ands" of
Part-familiarization runs, setup maintenance and tool sharpening are three basic steps to save time on the plant floor.
However, production center overhead rates do not reduce cost subsidies that result from conditional setups (those setups only required to run a different product through the process) within that production center.
For this it first identifies the groups of features that can be machined in a single setup and determines a suitable workpiece orientation for each set-up.
This example, however, illustrates that explicit consideration of the opportunity cost of setups can direct management's attention toward process improvement and product scheduling strategies that will benefit the firm.
One of the drawbacks of using the WebCT survey is the variation in the survey setup in different versions of WebCT.
InstallShield Professional is already recognized as the de facto standard for creating Windows-based setups. InstallShield Professional - Windows Installer Edition is setting the standard in Windows Installer-based and Windows 2000 logo-certified setups (.msi file format), by giving setup authors the most comprehensive setup-authoring solution available.
Assembly line setups took the company's two setup specialists approximately an hour and a half each.
The greater variety in the number and size of patterns run per day, the more flexible the line must be in handling setup.
Solution: The company found that the problem was not in the assembly procedure itself, but in the way setups were stored and retrieved.