shale


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Related to shale: Burgess Shale

shale,

sedimentary rockrock,
aggregation of solid matter composed of one or more of the minerals forming the earth's crust. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology. Rocks are commonly divided, according to their origin, into three major classes—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
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 formed by the consolidation of mud or clay, having the property of splitting into thin layers parallel to its bedding planes. Shale tends to be fissile, i.e., it tends to split along planar surfaces between the layers of stratified rock. Shales comprise an estimated 55% of all sedimentary rocks. The composition of shale varies widely. Shales with very high silica content may have been formed when large quantities of diatomsdiatom
, unicellular organism of the kingdom Protista, characterized by a silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpturing. Most diatoms exist singly, although some join to form colonies.
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 and volcanic ash were present in the original sediment. Large numbers of fossilsfossil,
remains or imprints of plants or animals preserved from prehistoric times by the operation of natural conditions. Fossils are found in sedimentary rock, asphalt deposits, and coal and sometimes in amber and certain other materials.
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 in shales may give them a high calcium content; such shales may grade into limestoneslimestone,
sedimentary rock wholly or in large part composed of calcium carbonate. It is ordinarily white but may be colored by impurities, iron oxide making it brown, yellow, or red and carbon making it blue, black, or gray. The texture varies from coarse to fine.
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. Shales that contain a large percentage of aluminaalumina
or aluminum oxide,
Al2O3, chemical compound with m.p. about 2,000°C; and sp. gr. about 4.0. It is insoluble in water and organic liquids and very slightly soluble in strong acids and alkalies. Alumina occurs in two crystalline forms.
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 are used as a source of that mineral in the manufacture of cementcement,
binding material used in construction and engineering, often called hydraulic cement, typically made by heating a mixture of limestone and clay until it almost fuses and then grinding it to a fine powder.
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, and those that contain natural gas and petroleum have become a significant energy resource in the 21st cent. due to the use of hydraulic fracturing techniques in drilling. Shales containing abundant carbonaceous matter grade into bituminous coalcoal,
fuel substance of plant origin, largely or almost entirely composed of carbon with varying amounts of mineral matter. Types

There is a complete series of carbonaceous fuels, which differ from each other in the relative amounts of moisture, volatile matter,
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.

shale

[shāl]
(petrology)
A fine-grained laminated or fissile sedimentary rock made up of silt- or clay-size particles; generally consists of about one-third quartz, one-third clay materials, and one-third miscellaneous minerals, including carbonates, iron oxides, feldspars, and organic matter.

shale

Argillaceous sedimentary rock derived from clays or silts; typically thinly laminated and weak along planes; may be undesirable as a concrete aggregate.

shale

a dark fine-grained laminated sedimentary rock formed by compression of successive layers of clay-rich sediment
References in periodicals archive ?
During the study, a detailed analysis of 124 wells was carried out, including laboratory analysis on shale cores and cuttings in the United States.
The oil shale in the Songliao Basin is mainly concentrated in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou ([K.
A study, completed in collaboration with USAID, had confirmed presence of 3,778 trillion cubic feet (TCF) Shale gas and 2,323 billions of stock tank barrels (BSTB) Shale oil in place resources.
The European oil shale industry expanded rapidly before World War I due to petroleum shortage and the mass production of automobiles and trucks.
Under the existing circumstances, the interest in shale gas has declined around the world.
The study concludes that the production process of shale oil and gas results in high emissions of carbon dioxide and other gases that contributes to global warming and pollution of the environment and groundwater, potentially causing underground rock slides.
Chevron was the first super major to take advantage of Argentina's shale oil reserves with a joint venture exploration and production deal with YPF.
In 2007, shale gas wells comprised 8 percent of natural gas produced in the U.
Iran has vast shale oil and gas reserves in the West and the South.
Shale gas has repeatedly been called a 'game-changer' by the International Energy Agency (IEA) for the energy industry, in the past five years.
Although US officials have repeatedly said that the nation will be the number-one exporter of shale oil by 2025 or 2035 worldwide, many critics cast serious doubts at this strategic prospect.
The term oil shale generally refers to any sedimentary rock that contains solid bituminous materials (called kerogen) that are released as petroleum-like liquids when the rock is heated in the chemical process of pyrolysis.