shard


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shard

, sherd
Zoology a tough sheath, scale, or shell, esp the elytra of a beetle
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

shard

[shärd]
(geology)
A vitric fragment in pyroclastics, having a characteristically curved surface of fracture.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

database partitioning

Splitting large databases into separate entities for faster retrieval.

Horizontal Partitioning and Sharding
Horizontal partitioning separates rows by key fields; for example, all Arizona records are maintained in one index and New Mexico records in another, etc., or account numbers from 00001 to 49999 in one, and 50000 to 99999 in another.

If each horizontal partition is stored on a separate server, the partition is called a "shard," and the process is "sharding." Databases that provide automatic sharding determine how to divide the database into chunks based on ranges of values as in the above examples or by computing hash values of the keys. The latter creates a more uniform distribution of the data.

Vertical Partitioning
Also known as "row splitting," vertical partitioning separates columns. For example, widely used columns are stored in one database, while columns that are accessed infrequently are stored in another.

Master/Slave Partitioning
This simple method is used when viewing updates in real time is not critical. The master server is used for all updating of the database (writing), and one or more slave servers are used as copies for reading. Periodically, the updates on the master are copied to the slaves. See shared nothing.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Tourist Hansel B from Manhattan was not happy with his experience at the Shard, as he said: "It is completely overpriced for what it is.
? Consistent Cross-Shard Transactions: Harmony supports cross-shard transactions with shards directly communicating with each other.
A spokesman for Real Estate Management, the asset management company that operates The Shard, said: "We dealt with an incident at The Shard this morning involving a member of the public who climbed the building.
Marean showed the shard image to Eugene Smith, a volcanologist with the University of Nevada at Las Vegas, and Smith confirmed it was a volcanic shard.
The Liquid Shard installation at Pershing Square in Los Angeles
Not only does the race for the shards of Excalibur build momentum, but the challenges Ariane and Wally encounter from family, friends and enemies consistently deepen their characters and force them to grow in significant ways.
Rebecca Ferguson || Rebecca Ferguson at | | The he Shard, from her Instagram account
Begun in 2009, the Shard was inaugurated over two years ago.
The Shard is the tallest building in western Europe so you're certainly in for a spectacular treat.
London Fire Brigade said there was no evidence of a re in the 1,004ft Shard, adding that the smoke had dissipated.
LONDON'S latest tourism landmark -- The Shard -- is launching itself into the Middle East market with its debut at Arabian Travel Market this month.Promoted as a vertical town offering office, residential, hotel, dining and leisure facilities towering 310 m high, The Shard should strike a chord with Middle East travellers.
Qatar's sovereign wealth fund owns 95 per cent of Western Europe's tallest building, the Shard located in London.