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plow

plow or plough, agricultural implement used to cut furrows in and turn up the soil, preparing it for planting. The plow is generally considered the most important tillage tool. Its beginnings in the Bronze Age were associated with the domestication of draft animals and the increasing demand for food resulting from the rise of cities. The plow is depicted on Egyptian monuments, mentioned in the Old Testament, and described by Hesiod and Vergil. The early plow consisted simply of a wooden wedge, tipped with iron and fastened to a single handle, and a beam, which was pulled by men or oxen. Such implements were capable of breaking but not of inverting the soil. The plow evolved gradually until c.1600, when British landlords attempted greater improvements. The first half of the 18th cent. saw the introduction into England of the moldboard, a curved board that turns over the slice of earth cut by the share. Important improvements in design and materials were made in the early part of the 19th cent. They included streamlined moldboards, replaceable shares, and steel plows with self-scouring moldboards. Standardized by 1870, the modern moldboard plow has been improved by various attachments, e.g., the colter, a sharp blade or disk that cuts the ground in advance of the share. In 19th-century America horses largely replaced oxen for drawing plows. Tractors now supply this power in most developed parts of the world. With more powerful tractors, larger plows have come into use. Among the various types of plows in use today are the reversible two-way plow for contour plowing; listers and middlebusters, which prepare shallow beds; the disk plow, whose revolving concave disks are useful in working hard or dry soil; the rotary plow, with an assembly of knives on the shaft that mix the surface growth with the soil; and the chisel plow, with points mounted on long shanks to loosen hard, dry soils and shatter subsurface hardpan. The plow often symbolizes agriculture, as in the great seals of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and other states.

Bibliography

See publications of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture; C. Culpin, Farm Machinery (12th ed. 1992).


stock

, in finance
stock, in finance, instrument certifying to shares in the ownership of a corporation. Bonds are similar evidences of shares in a loan to a corporation. Stock yields no dividends until claims of bondholders have been met. Preferred stock is entitled to dividends of a specified percentage per annum before common stock is entitled to any dividends; the common stock is then usually entitled to the rest of the profits. In case of liquidation of the company, holders of bonds and preferred stock take precedence over holders of common stock in the division of assets. Holders of common stock usually have voting rights in the management of the corporation; bondholders and, usually, holders of preferred stock have no voting rights. Since the value of common stock depends largely on its earnings, it is often issued with no par value. Public demand for securities and the need of corporations for ready capital have led to the development of stock exchanges in most of the major cities of the world (see stock exchange).
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Share

 

in law:

(1) A part or proprietary interest in a company or joint stock society, associated with definite rights and obligations.

(2) In the USSR, the fee paid by a member of a cooperative organization (the core unit of the cooperative system) and also by members of cooperatives formed to build housing, summer homes and garages. Shares provide the major part of the capital of such cooperatives. The price of the share and the manner and schedule of payment are determined by decision of a general meeting of the cooperative members in accordance with the organization’s by-laws. The cost of a share in a construction cooperative corresponds to the balance valuation of the premises (apartment, summer home, garage) offered to the cooperative member for permanent use. The value of labor performed by a cooperative member and members of his family who have taken part in building the unit may be considered when calculating what the member must pay for a share.

The right to a share is a personal property right of the cooperative member. With the consent of a general meeting, a member of a housing construction cooperative may transfer his share to any adult member of his family who resides permanently with him. A share in a housing cooperative can be divided when a marriage is dissolved, if the share was jointly held by both spouses. The cost of a share is refunded when members leave the cooperative or when the cooperative is liquidated. If a cooperative member dies, his share passes on by inheritance in the manner established by law.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

share

(1) (noun) A resource such as a file, folder or printer that has been made available (sharable) to other users on the network. See share-level security and Win Sharing files.

(2) (verb) To send a file or link to someone. A Share function in an application or on a website enables users to send the current photo, document, article or link to someone via email or to their social networking accounts such as Facebook, LinkedIn or Twitter.
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References in classic literature ?
Next came the paid actors; and lastly the shareholders, generally also actors, some or all of whom were the general managers.
He became one of the leading members, later one of the chief shareholders, of the company, and evidently enjoyed a substantial reputation as a playwright and a good, though not a great, actor.
"Just so," said I; "and a warning to those shareholders would be an act of charity.
'and the Directors have every reason to believe that ten per cent., or more, will be ultimately realised to the shareholders by the hotel.'
* The Tax Court's decision in Ruckriegel discards one of the IRS's fundamental criteria for establishing shareholder basis.
To dissuade shareholder employees from leaving the company, some buy-sell contracts give individuals who leave voluntarily or for misconduct as defined by the agreement less than they would otherwise receive.
LLC announced that shareholders of Carey Institutional Properties (CIP(r)) and Corporate Property Associates 15 (CPA(r): 15), members of the W.
274(a)(1)(A) disallow an S corporation's deductions for the amount of expenses of providing corporate aircraft for the personal use of a shareholder or employee, in excess of the value of the flights included in the shareholder's or employee's income under the methodology of Regs.
"Are they putting forward these ideas about shareholder involvement just to come up with some incredibly bureaucratic process?" Then again, he says: "There was an easier way for Donaldson.
Further, shareholder responsiveness can decrease with transaction age.
Since then, many individuals have been contacting the Shareholder Action Network (SAN), a project of the Social Investment Forum in Washington, D.C., to find out how to get in on the shareholder action.