The axial load (Figure 4) can be decomposed into the shear load along the middle plane of the specimen and the compressive load along the upper plane of the specimen, and the shear load is equal to the compressive load at the compressive

shear angle of 45[degrees].

In addition to the geometry and

shear angle altering, different surface polishing conditions were applied to the conventional flat punch.

The

shear angle a refers to the contact point between the lower shear blade and the tangent of arc upper shear blade.

The responses are the transverse displacement w(0.25L, t), the total slope w'(0.25 L, t), the slope due to bending [theta](0.25 L, t), and the

shear angle due to transverse shear force [psi](0.25 L, t).

Material ABS Terluran GP22 Structure Amorphous Extensional viscosity 5,230,000 Pas (240[degrees]C) Reversible

shear Angle 7.1[degrees] Material PS 158 K Structure Amorphous Extensional viscosity 269,700 Pas (200[degrees]C) Reversible

shear Angle 22.4[degrees] Material PS VPT Structure Semi-crystalline Extensional viscosity 4,046 Pas (220[degrees]C) Reversible

shear Angle 11.9[degrees] Material PA 6.6 Ultramid A3 Structure Semi-crystalline Extensional viscosity 454 Pas (280[degrees]C) Reversible

shear Angle 3.8[degrees] TABLE 2.

The

shear angle is defined as the degree of angle that changes at peak frictional force and at the commencement of the experiment.

where b is the uncut chip thickness, (p

shear angle, w the cutting width, and the tool-chip friction angle.

The "source" is placed at a specific angle, [theta] relatively to the vertical axis, equal to the critical

shear angle of this horizontal liquid/solid interface.

Details of the averages of cutting forces [F.sub.x], feed forces [F.sub.y], and primary

shear angle [PHI] are presented in Table 1 and 2 in the section "analytical results and discussion", compared to numerical and analytical data.

The shear behaviour of fused bilayer textile systems and their constituent components could be characterized by shear stiffness (G, N/m x degrees), shear hysteresis at the

shear angle of 0.5[degrees] (2HG, N/m) and hysteresis at the

shear angle of 5[degrees] (2HG5, N/m) determined from the shear force-shear angle curve (Fig.

The maximum tangential angle (

shear angle) was obtained when the flagellum intersects the x-axis; that is, arctan(27[pi]b/[lambda]).

This formula determines the relation between the values of length [L.sub.cr] and

shear angle [[theta].sub.cr] when a straight bar or plate made from composite is being buckled.