Demographic effects on fruit set in the dioecious shrub Canada buffaloberry (Shepherdia
canadensis).--PeerJ 2: e526.
In many locations Dryas exists in an almost complete monoculture with only occasional individuals of soapberry (Shepherdia
canadensis), Hedysarum spp., dwarf fireweed (Epilobium latifolium), poplar saplings (Populus balsamifera), and Crepis elegans interspersed.
They are Betula populifolia (gray birch), Carex scabrata, Corallorrhiza trifida (coral root), Gerardia pedicularia ambigens (clammy false foxglove), Hemicarpa drummondii, Hippuris vulgaris (mare's tail), Lechea stricta (bush pinweed), Lemna perpusilla (least duckweed), Linnaea borealis (twin flower), Lonicera canadensis (American fly honeysuckle), Oryzopsis pungens (short-horned rice grass), Panicum lucidum (bog panic grass), Psilocarya nitens (bald rush), Pyrola secunda (one-sided shinleaf), Scleria reticularis (netted nut rush), Shepherdia
canadensis (russet buffaloberry), Trillium cernuum macranthum (nodding trillium), and Utricularia resu pinata (small purple bladderwort).
Three N-fixing species inhabit the interdunal swales (sweet gale Myrica gale, speckled alder Alnus incana, and buffalo-berry Shepherdia
canadensis); however, litter inputs from these species to the upland dune ridges are negligible.
Other species such as honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos), hawthorn (Crataegus spp.), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia
spp.) have thorns, which may make them undesirable for some uses.
This environment included widespread woodlands composed of limber pine (Pinus flexilis), big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and buffalo berry (Shepherdia
Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), wild rose (Rosa acicularis), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia
canadensis) were the principal understory species of aspen stands and occurred in different proportions.
Birch (Betula spp.), aspen, alder (Alnus spp.), soopolallie (Shepherdia
canadensis), and 2 species of coniferous trees (lodgepole pine and subalpine fir) formed the bulk of remaining browse species.
menziesii 7b Garry oak Quercus garryana 8 arbutus Arbutus menziesii 8 western flowering dogwood Cornus nuttallii 8 Monkey-puzzle Araucaria araucana Zone hardiness of some indicator shrubs 0 northern Labrador-tea Ledum decumbens 1 Saskatoon serviceberry Amelanchier alnifolia 1 hedge cotoneaster Cotoneaster lucidus 1 silver buffalo-berry Shepherdia
argentea la Labrador-tea Ledum groenlandicum 2 Siberian pea-tree Caragana arborescens 2 Siberian dogwood Cornus alba `Sibirica' 2 European cotoneaster Cotoneaster integerrima 2 silverberry Elaeagnus commutata 2b common juniper Juniperus communis var.
alaxensis), bog birch (Betula glandulosa), and soapberry (Shepherdia
canadensis) (Douglas 1974).
Also common are: Shepherdia
canadensis (5-10%) and Dryopteris-type (5-10%) at Chase Pond (Fig.
In the western portion of the region, the understory vegetation is characterized by Shepherdia
canadensis (buffaloberry), whereas Ledum groenlandicum (Labrador tea) is more prominent on reference sites in the eastern portion (Fig.