The combination of shifting agriculture
and slavery, along with other factors, created a bleak economic and political outlook that led reformers to the cause of state activism.
(27) The 'hill tribe' category is part of a racialised discourse in which people like the Lua are assumed to be primitive and stubborn, less than loyal citizens, and practitioners of environmentally destructive 'shifting agriculture
' (rai luan loi).
The authors give the lie to government misinformation campaigns that try to blame shifting agriculture
for the destruction of the rainforest and the massive fires that followed.
still predominated among native farmers, but some irrigated terraces were also to be found.
The new product and process dynamics derived from output traits have the potential to catalyze a structural transformation of agricultural production, logistics and value by shifting agriculture
's cost-driven, commodity orientation toward a focus on value-added customization.
Tribal Dao people lived on the hillsides, where they practiced shifting agriculture
and grew upland rice.
Based on this site, Prufer characterizes the Ohio Hopewell settlement pattern as a system of small, semipermanent farmsteads based on shifting agriculture
, clustered around a series of ceremonial centers and burial grounds with which a number of such farmsteads identified themselves.
And, as Scott is well aware, whatever its virtues, shifting agriculture
is not a viable alternative to intensive sedentary agriculture, whether industrial or not.
Such intense shifting agriculture
makes natural forest regeneration impossible.
This article focuses on the problem of deforestation in Indonesia; its environmental consequences, economic and social costs, forest policy, forest legislation, government policy on shifting agriculture
, conservation areas and national parks, causes of forest degradation, forest management, shifting cultivation, future outlook, and the case studies of logging in East Kalimantan and of Siberut, an island in the Mentawai group off the west coast of Sumatra (Drs.
which at one time in the recent past was sustainable because of a longer cycle of 20 years or more has drastically come down to less than five years, partly because of large-scale exploitation of forest resources by the industrial humans and the consequent land degradation caused by it (Case 1).
People who practised a form of shifting agriculture
andmeasured their wealth in cattle were not peasants in any meaningful way.