All ceftriaxone resistant Shigellae
were ESBL producers.
Additional studies are needed to elucidate these findings; identify specific risk factors; understand clinical outcomes for patients infected with these resistant strains and in the setting of HIV infection; and develop effective interventions to prevent infection of MSM with shigellae
, particularly drug-resistant shigellae
Clinical guidance for the testing and interpretation of azithromycin susceptibility among shigellae
is needed to guide patient management.
In the recent years, various ESBL-producing Shigellae
were also reported from Korea (CTX-M14), Argentina (CTX-M-2), Viet Nam (CTX-M-15, and CTX-M-24), France, and Turkey (21-24).
Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the Shigellae
invasion proteins especially IpaB in inducing immunity against these bacteria which are a frequent cause of dysentery in areas of poor hygiene (3).
Increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance in Shigellae
from humans in England and Wales: recommendations for therapy.
coli and the shigellae
have exchanged stx many times in their evolutionary past but only certain strains, such as 229/11, have the appropriate genomic background to retain and stably express Stx (9).
Illness was expressed as episodes of diarrhea per person-year from which shigellae
Multidrug resistance of shigellae
is not new (1); many countries have reported resistance to amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol.
Changes in the worldwide epidemiology of shigellae
species have been documented in the last two decades.
Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigellae
isolated from diarrhoeal patients in Yangon, Myanmar.
soldiers and Vietnamese residents with diarrhea; levels of resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and novobiocem were high, particularly among shigellae