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(shō`gŭn'), title of the feudal military administrator who from the 12th cent. to the 19th cent. was, as the emperor's military deputy, the actual ruler of Japan. The title itself, Sei-i-tai Shogun [barbarian-subduing generalissimo], dates back to 794 and originally meant commander of the imperial armies who led the campaigns against the AinuAinu
, aborigines of Japan who may be descended from a Caucasoid people who once lived in N Asia. More powerful invaders from the Asian mainland gradually forced the Ainu to retreat to the northern islands of Japan and Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands in what is now the Russian
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 in N Japan. The shogunate as a military administrative system was established by YoritomoYoritomo
(Yoritomo Minamoto) , 1148–99, Japanese warrior and dictator, founder of the Kamakura shogunate. After a prolonged struggle he led his clan, the Minamoto, to victory over the Taira in 1185.
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 after 1185 and was known as the Bakufu [literally, army headquarters]. The imperial court at Kyoto continued to exist, but effective power and actual administration were in the hands of the hereditary shoguns. The shogunate was held in turn by the Minamoto family and their successors, with their capital at Kamakura (1192–1333); the Ashikaga, with their capital at Kyoto (1338–1597); and the TokugawaTokugawa
, family that held the shogunate (see shogun) and controlled Japan from 1603 to 1867. Founded by Ieyasu, the Tokugawa regime was a centralized feudalism. The Tokugawa themselves held approximately one fourth of the country in strategically located parcels, which they
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, with their capital at Yedo (Tokyo) after 1603. The overthrow of the shogun in 1867 brought the Meiji restorationMeiji restoration,
The term refers to both the events of 1868 that led to the "restoration" of power to the emperor and the entire period of revolutionary changes that coincided with the Meiji emperor's reign (1868–1912).
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 and the beginning of modern Japan. See daimyodaimyo
[Jap.,=great name], the great feudal landholders of Japan, the territorial barons as distinguished from the kuge, or court nobles. Great tax-free estates were built up from the 8th cent.
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See J. P. Mass and W. B. Hauer, The Bakufu in Japanese History (1985).



originally, a military rank bestowed on troop commanders sent from the ancient Japanese capital of Kyoto (He-ian) between 794 and 811 to subdue the Ebisu (Emishi) people in the northeastern section of the island of Honshu. When de facto power passed from the emperor to the feudal house of Mi-namoto in 1192, the rank of shogun was bestowed on the head of the house, Minamoto Yoritomo. Thereafter, the title came to be applied to military-feudal rulers of Japan, who ruled in the name of the emperor, from the feudal dynasties of Minamoto (1192–1333), Ashikaga (1335[1338]–l573), and Tokugawa (1603–1867). The last shogun was Tokugawa Yoshinobu (Keiki), who was overthrown as a result of the incomplete bourgeois revolution of 1867–68.

References in periodicals archive ?
The investigation reveals a plot to assassinate the shogun and overthrow the ruling Ashikaga clan.
Renault investigators suspect money from the carmaker was used for Anthony Ghosn's fintech startup, Shogun Enterprises Inc., and the purchase of a yacht, people familiar with the situation told Bloomberg previously.
It comes with a choice of two extensivelyequipped trim levels called Shogun Sport 3 and Shogun Sport 4, both of which have been kept below the PS40,000 threshold.
Those familiar with Mitsubishi models down the years will certainly recognise the Shogun Sport name as it was sold in the UK from 2000 to 2007, clocking up 18,500 sales.
Shogun opened in 1981 in a smaller restaurant down Veterans Boulevard.
There are two trim levels to choose from with Shogun Sport 3, priced from PS37,775, featuring the likes of dual zone climate control, a reversing camera with rear parking sensors, automatic lights and wipers, electrically-adjustable front seats, a touchscreen infotainment system and plenty more besides.
But Mitsubishi are right to be confident about the latest car's prospects - it not only looks upmarket, muscular and interesting but both trim grades, Shogun Sport 3 and 4, have been kept below the PS40,000 threshold.
The entry-level Shogun Sport 3 gets leather upholstery, electricallyadjustable front seats, power folding mirrors, LED headlamps, tail lamps and driving lights, dual-zone climate control, reversing camera with rear parking sensors, keyless entry with push-button start, privacy glass and automatic headlamps and wipers.
Little is known so far about Shogun World, but the website ( Delos Destinations provided some extra details.
But the Shogun, with its Super Select 4WD System consisting of four different modes to cope with all conditions, didn't miss a heartbeat.
The imposing dimensions, upright stance, and boxy, square-jawed shape are all traditional styling cues that underline its off-road credentials, while the rear-mounted spare wheel is a long-standing Shogun trademark.
As a car buyer he might well have been tempted by the Mitsubishi Shogun, a real reassuring constant in a fast-changing automotive landscape.