shoulder effect

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coastal refraction

coastal refractionclick for a larger image
Aircraft at A will get erroneous reading while that at B will have no error. Alternatively, A should utilize a beacon located near coast line.
One of the errors in a direction finder resulting from the change in the direction of travel of a radio ground wave as it passes from one medium to another (i.e., from land to sea or from sea to land). Also called land effect, shoreline effect, and shoulder effect. This effect can be minimized by use of coastal beacons, in which the radio beam will leave the coast at 90°, resulting in nil refraction.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
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In contrast, removal of the hardness/ shoulder term causes the [R.sup.2] value to decrease to 68.8 percent, which does indicate a strong shoulder effect.
For practical design purposes, this regression expression--which illustrates "shoulder effect"--can be further simplified to the form:
The tenons measure 0.6 inches (15.2 ram) in diameter, so the corresponding estimated flexural stress, [s.sub.4], developed in the tenons (independent of shoulder effects) would be